16 century accurately enough shown to the beginning the falling tendency effekyotivnosti activity namestnichej administrations with all evidence have brought the government an attention to the question on necessity radical preobyorazovany in sphere of local management according to new class structure of a society and new problems of the state.

The idea about sovetnoj to the form of the organisation of the power has received the embodiment in reform of the local device in which course were founded lip and zemskie establishments, poyostroennye on principles of self-management and class representation.

During the period when the bureaucracy in Russia was in a stage stanovyolenija, and deputies and volosteli have appeared incapable to operate effectively the territory entrusted to it, the created self-government institutions answered also to interests of the most central power which in local obshcheyostve searched as applicants for elective offices, and materiyoalnye the means, allowing to operate volosts without expenses, and also peyoredat to new bodies realisation of some the state functions.

The material collected from sources of different character, svidetelyostvuet about certain distinction in the functional plan former and noyovyh the establishments, consisting in that. That. Despite given and vyboryonym wide enough volume of powers, in the basic directions coinciding with functions kormlenshchikov, in activity of the elective device it is possible for bodies usmotreg certain sprouts spetsializayotsii: lip bodies - on criminally-police activity, and zemskih - on a financial direction.

Proceeding from the activity analysis zemskih the authorities hardly it is possible soyoglasitsja, that self-management it was left as a heavy duty and osyonovnoj the care of state needs and ints - nie the control of the Moscow orders over self-government institutions was the purpose of new bodies only, strengthening of responsibility elective before the central power meant dalnejyoshee development of process of centralisation in local management.

ресах*. Persistence from which zemsky the world achieved self-management, and after reform actively used this right, both in financial sphere, and in judicial and economic areas, testifies to revival of a volost life.

The wide competence of the elective authorities, close connection with local residents, and as consequence, considerable awareness on all affairs occurring in district, allowed the government to use these uchrezhyodenija, and first of all lip heads, as more reliable tool (rather than deputies and volostelej) in carrying out state politiyoki on places, especially in struggle both against criminal elements, and with anyotifeodalnymi performances.

In comparison with institute zemskogo the representations which elective authorities have been put in dependence first of all from izbiyorajushchego their population that was provided with action of mechanisms obshchinyonogo managements (selectivities, the accountability and annual removability), the boundless power of lip establishments, class character of a post lip heads, neoplachivaemost services and bezgranichnost terms preyobyvanija in a post and at the same time, absence of effective mechanisms of the control from electors, - all it led to growth zloupotrebyoleny lip heads and to the further development of contradictions between mestyonym a society and the lip authorities.

Paying considerable attention to activity perfection oryoganov self-management, the legislator usganavlivast rigid requirements to the authorities on appropriate realisation of the problems assigned to them and osoyobenno on law and order maintenance in operated territory, allocates heads of local departments with a number of powers which was not at kormlenshchiyokov, allowing and to warn and bar offences.

’ I Bogoslovshy M.M.Uka ╗. soch. T. 2. With. ZN); Кнніькпк Uka╗. soch. С.70.

Imperfection of the organisation of elected bodies, absence of an accurate legislative regulation of activity lip and zemskih uchrezhdeyony. Especially in case of their parallel functioning on one teryoritorii, and in the elective device and taking place yet ustojavshajayosja specialisation of officials, led to a competition new inyostitutov with each other in adjacent fields of activity, to an interlacing and duplication of functions of the elective authorities.

The organisation and acquisition of the local device, volume of powers of officials in each of self-coping districts had the features defined in size of operated territory and obeyomom of affairs, and also the specialisation which has developed in local management and other circumstances.

The territorial self-government could not compete to self-management of noble family, presented by lip establishments. Zemsky bodies, not possessing a necessary enforcement machinery, could not operatively and carry out rigidly enough a policy of the centre and owing to it dostayotochno often addressed for assistance to the central power. Retraction of last in area of local affairs changed character zemskih establishments and undermined independence of new bodies.

The territorial self-government was a little adjusted with development samoderyozhavija, that was expressed in decrease in independence of communities as a result of nobility and development strengthening zakrepostitslnogo process. A pas territoyorii all state reform has not been spent, as in the central areas where the pomestno-patrimonial landed property prevailed, zemskie oryogany were not founded. Only in Pomorze and some areas Severo - East Volga region reform has been spent completely.

The lip establishments having in the hands necessary karatelyonyj the device for realisation of decisions and connected with wide layers meyostnogo of nobility, and also provided with support country and poyosadskogo the population, obliged by reading and writing to promote the lip authorities, represented "strong enough and on conditions of that time dosyotatochno effective body of local management with clearly expressed klasyosovym the person" [171].

Control system perfection in Russian state spoyosobstvovalo to the further development of centralisation state orgayonov. In submission zemskih establishments central financial orga - to us-chetjam, lip - Razbojnomu to the order, expansion control polyonomochy the central departments concerning local establishments projavyoljalos aspiration of the imperial power to put self-government institutions under more rigid control from an officialdom, the role koyotorogo sharply increased.

During reforms the new system material obespecheyonija sluzhilogo a class has been created. If earlier incomes kormlenshchikov arrived in rasyoporjazhenie local managers, with the organisation zemskih uchrezhdeyony. Entered instead of namestnichih incomes uniform state nayolog the zemstvo paid directly in the treasury, which incomes sharply uveyolichilis and there was a possibility to carry out reorganisation of military service and to receive the additional source of finance dvorjanstyova.

By means of participation in activity of lip establishments and the decision along with internal affairs and the major state questions the rising nobility has considerably hardened the positions, having acquired the right to creation of the controls soslovno-of noble family in the name of lip heads.

Considerable concessions during local court and management reforming have been made also to prosperous layers posadskogo and the country population which had an opportunity independent management and the decision zemskih affairs through elected bodies.

In the compromise character of reform shown in natselennoyosti of it on satisfaction of interests of nobility, nobility and "best" poyosadskih and volost people, on the one hand, and in submission new orgayonov to the escalating control from the central establishments peculiar to evolution process tsentralnoyogo and the local device of Russian state interaction and struggle vyyobornogo, on the other hand, were showed and mandative has begun.

But at all incompleteness the reforms begun in board of Ivan Groznogo, were a step forward on a way of reforming of system meyostnogo managements and its adaptations to requirements and problems, stojavyoshim before central vlast ju, not having in the arsenal of means for creation of effectively operating state local authorities.

Bodies lip and a territorial self-government, it is organic vpisavshieyosja in a new phase of development of statehood and the control systems which have become by a core up to their official cancellation, were a support of the Moskovyosky government and reliable conductors state politiyoki at local level.

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A source: MAKSIMOVA Natalia Anatolevna. LOCAL GOVERNMENT of Russia At 16-17 V.V. (ISTORIKO-LEGAL RESEARCH). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws. Saratov -. 1996

More on topic THE CONCLUSION:

  1. the Conclusion
  4. the Conclusion
  5. the Conclusion
  7. the Pathomorphologic conclusion
  13. the Conclusion
  15. the Conclusion