§1. Development of the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals during the period with 1838 for 1917

In the middle of XIX century Nizhni Novgorod was large trading, industrial and a centre of science. The period in history of the Nizhniy Novgorod press can be characterised 1838-1917 as an epoch of blossoming business and advertising-reference media, counted, first of all, on participants of market process.

The first Nizhniy Novgorod newspaper - «the Nizhniy Novgorod provincial sheets» - was published in 1838. In 1838-1917 in the Nizhniy Novgorod province 160 periodicals, among them political, business, literary, advertising-help, entertaining, religious, scientific, professional, party were published. As a whole, thematic directivity of the Nizhniy Novgorod press of this period was universal. The considerable part of newspapers published materials about the politician, trade, crop, the literature, therefore they are difficult for referring to to any concrete type of the press. Frequently the thematic spectrum of newspapers was so wide, that one periodical could act in a role political, literary, business, professional. Each of themes in the periodical the separate strip deposited. Such approach to formation of structure of newspaper numbers is used in the Nizhniy Novgorod press and today.

In 1838-1917 there was a system formation

The Nizhniy Novgorod press. Survey of history and a typology of the Nizhniy Novgorod press of that time is necessary for revealing of major factors of development of periodicals of region. Some periodicals which were getting out during this period, began to be published again already at the present stage.

The factors which have defined development of the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals in XIX - the beginning of XX centuries the Nizhniy Novgorod province became one of six provinces which first in Russia have acquired the right to publish regional newspapers. However, as it has already been noted, first number «Nizhniy Novgorod provincial sheets» was issued only in 1838.

To question on why in the Nizhniy Novgorod province long there was no regional press, has devoted one of publications E. V.Kurbakova. The researcher notes, that the technical condition of the Nizhniy Novgorod polygraphy was at this time on a low level. It, according to E. V.Kurbakovoj, became the main reason of a delay of issue of the first Nizhniy Novgorod newspaper. Data that «by 1801 the type lettering has been beaten» have remained, and «the first tens years of existence of printery have passed absolutely completely; except decrees and book blank forms does not remain any products of printing which could remind of existence and activity of printery with 1791 for 1838 when there was first number« Nizhniy Novgorod provincial sheets ».

Being aimed to settle a question technical aspect, the Nizhniy Novgorod authorities have undertaken many force. «For this purpose to Moscow to be trained in typographical business at known publisher S.I.Selivanovskogo there went at various times the adviser of provincial board Bravin, the inspector of printery Boguslavsky and the bureaucrat Lvov. The new equipment was got also. By the end of 1837 the printery, at the Kremlin, had at the disposal of 7 presses and 50 poods of a type lettering». [82 [83] [84]

N.A.Saharova studying history of the Nizhniy Novgorod publishing, pays attention in the research to origination and development in XIX century - the beginning of XX century of the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals.

She notes, that primary factors which have played an essential role in publishing development in the second half XIX - the XX-th century beginning, there was a prompt development of capitalist relations, and also growth and perfection

Polygraphic manufacture. The Nizhniy Novgorod province was included at that time into number of the regions developed in the industrial relation. By 1894 in it 345 factories numbered. Except factories and plants, in region there was an assemblage of the industrial factories with 17815 workers [85 [86] [87] [88].

Metallurgy was a leading industry of region. The cities of Vyksa, Pavlovo and Vorsma became the centres metallurgical, metalcutting and a machine industry. In region there was also a numerous small craft manufacture.

Simultaneous development of remeslenno-handicraft and factory manufacture was one of the major features of the local industry


That time.

Nizhni Novgorod keeps a rule of a trading platform known in all country. The Nizhniy Novgorod fair gave to a city the special status. Nizhni Novgorod was «a barometre of all industrial life and trade of Russia». Annually on fair there came merchants, representatives of the industry and agriculture from all Russia. It promoted sotsialnoekonomicheskomu to development of Nizhni Novgorod. Active trading and public work demanded regular informational illumination, stimulated development of the local press and book publishing. In the end XIX - the beginnings of XX centuries the big role in a public life of Nizhni Novgorod were played by M.Gorky - the outstanding journalist, the publicist, the literary instructor, the public figure.

As it has already been noted, growth and perfection of polygraphic manufacture in Nizhni Novgorod promoted development of the local press. By the end of 1870th in a city was only six printeries. But already in 1880-1890th active development of the Nizhniy Novgorod polygraphic manufacture has begun. The number of printeries increases and their hardware improves. The periodicals become the major means of the informational exchange between townspeople.

One of leading Nizhniy Novgorod publishers of XIX century was Ampere-second. G atsisky. It represented itself as the editor of many local publications. Among them it is necessary to note "Nizhegorodku" (1875-1877) - the well-known guidebook of Ampere-second. Gatsisky. "Nizhegorodka" has replaced monotonous help books of the Nizhniy Novgorod province. In this publication, except an obligatory address-calendar, materials about province history, sights of Nizhni Novgorod and the biography of local celebrities were typed. V.E.Cheshihin-Vetrinsky and G.I.Sergeev in 1911-1915 published the literary illustrated calendar - the directory «Nizhniy Novgorod year-book».

The big role in development of the Nizhniy Novgorod publishing and periodicals the provincial statistical committee has played. Ampere-second. Gatsisky considered, that provincial statistical committees were original «the scientific centres (or, at least, were aimed to it) and had» [89] «some monopoly for publications of every possible researches» [90]. Members of committee published valuable materials on economy, histories, province geography.

In Nizhni Novgorod even before opening of higher educational institutions (in 1916 the public university has started to work) there was a tradition of publications of scientific materials, products of the popular scientific literature and the technical journals, connected with the vigorous activity of scientific and technical societies. The imperial Russian technical society (RTO) was the most considerable union of technical specialists in second half XIX centuries not only in Russia, but also in Europe.

Nizhniy Novgorod branch RTO was the largest public union in province in second half XIX centuries [91 [92]. Since 1886 the branch released the log «the Nizhniy Novgorod bulletin of shipping company and the industry» in which papers of a maintenance devoted to development of a river shipping company and shipbuilding were published. This monthly technical journal was the unique publication in the world of a similar sort. «Russian astonomical calendar» (it is based in 1895) it is possible to consider the annual publication of the Nizhniy Novgorod circle of fans of physics and astronomy as the first scientific collector which is a practical and help management for all who studies astronomy and conducts astonomical observations.

In 1860-1913 the quantity of the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals increases approximately ten times. Though, by a recognition of contemporaries, to 1890

The periodicals in Nizhni Novgorod have been poorly developed in comparison

- 93

With other large Russian cities.

With 1860 prior to the beginning of 1890th the Nizhniy Novgorod press has been presented to the period, mainly, traditional for the majority of regions by provincial and diocesan sheets and «the Nizhniy Novgorod exchange leaf», published during 16 years (1875-1891) to I.A.Zhukovym.

Informing on government directives was the main task of "the Nizhniy Novgorod provincial sheets». The newspaper consisted of official and informal parts. First switched on data on official deeds, orders, the information of frame character (about dismissals and appointments). Informal - of regional studies, historical, ethnographic materials, the information on agriculture, trade, economy, the industry. Ampere-second. Gatsisky, working as the editor of this newspaper in 1862-1866, has undertaken considerable force that the maintenance «Nizhniy Novgorod provincial sheets» became more various, more interesting to a wide auditory. Edition began to involve in cooperation of correspondents from Balakhna, Lukojanova, Sergacha. During the different periods in an informal part of the newspaper typed products of known writers: P.D.Boborykina, V.I.Dalja, the Item And Melnikova-Pechersky.

The history of the orthodox press of the Nizhniy Novgorod region originates in the newspaper «Nizhniy Novgorod diocesan sheets» (1864-1905) Getting out with periodicity two times a month. The newspaper maintenance switched on official and informal parts. Papers were published in the informal about religion and morals, extracts from the Scriptus, citations from creations of sacred fathers, lectures of clergy of the Nizhniy Novgorod diocese, councils of clerics, istoriko-statistical materials. In an informal part of the newspaper there was also a heading "Mix" which contained the information on [93] cases «especial act of good fortune Divine presently», memoirs and stories about significant and instructive events, «questions and bewilderment in various subjects and cases of service and activity of clergy and answers to them», narrations about a life of clergy, «easily understood data on medicine and natural sciences» [94]. After closing in 1905 of "the Nizhniy Novgorod diocesan sheets», «the Nizhniy Novgorod tserkovno-public bulletin» (1906-1918) was published.

In the end of XIX century the number of the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals has considerably grown. There was «the Nizhniy Novgorod fair», «a Nizhniy Novgorod bulletin of shipping company and the industry», «Nizhniy Novgorod mail», etc.

One of the oldest publications of region - the newspaper "Volgar" which informed readers on news of the Volga region and the Nizhniy Novgorod edge. S.I.Zhukov was the editor of the newspaper. In it products were typed And. M.Gorkogo, F.A.Zheltova, N.N.Rajnovskoj. Some the time the editor and the literary critic "Volgarja" was A.A.Drobyshevsky who co-operated with «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf», become to one of progressive liberal Nizhniy Novgorod publications.

«Nizhniy Novgorod mail», the politiko-public and literary newspaper, was published in Nizhni Novgorod till 1901. It has been counted, first of all, for local merchant class. Editors and publishers of the newspaper - Century N and N.I.Pastuhovy.

Among the Nizhniy Novgorod newspapers of XIX century «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf», played the big role in a local public and literary life in the end of XIX - the XX-th century beginning deposits. With this newspaper co-operated V.G.Korolenko and M.Gorky. Last it was possible to make on some time «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf» one of the most progressive newspapers of the country. In the publication advertisement its concept has been formulated: «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf» puts the problem working out of questions of the Nizhniy Novgorod and Volga region life, taking away at the same time a wide place to interests of the state and public life of all Russia »[95 [96]. Stories were published In literary department of the newspaper and to lead (with continuation), sketches, verses and feuilletons, critiques, bibliographic notes, theatrical reviews. Products of the well-known authors were published in the newspaper: I.Bunin, L.Andreeva, V.Veresayev, etc.

In 1903 the weekly publication of the Nizhniy Novgorod zemstvo - «Nizhniy Novgorod zemskaja the newspaper», typing analytical papers about governmental and zemskih provisions, notes about an economic life of Russia and the Nizhniy Novgorod province, the correspondence, popular scientific articles on all branches of knowledge, responses about books starts to be published, had


Help department.

In the beginning of XX century in Nizhni Novgorod there are new newspapers and logs, the periodicals become more various. Along with political, special publications (technical, literary, theatrical) are even more often released. Gain ground satirical, illustrated, and also advertising, mercantile, torgovopromyshlennye periodic publications. In the first decades of the XX-th century there are newspapers: "Sudohodets" with the illustrated applications, «the Bulletin of the salesman», «the Companion of the buyer», a review of new books «Behind the book», etc. Is published the theatrical log "Theatre-goer", «the Nizhniy Novgorod musical news». In catalogues of some libraries there are local publications of the beginning the XX-th centuries testifying to tryings of creation of the first publishing houses.

V.E.Cheshihin-Vetrinsky, the known literary critic and the historian living in Nizhni Novgorod with 1899 for 1918, was in the service in a zemstvo, edited «the Zemsky newspaper"and"the Nizhniy Novgorod year-book», the calendar - the directory on questions zemskogo and urban village, agricultural cooperation, accepted active participation in the newspaper publication «Nizhniy Novgorod



In 1905 in Nizhni Novgorod there was an assemblage of new periodicals. However after the First World War beginning in the Nizhniy Novgorod publishing again there steps recession. In 1915 in the Nizhniy Novgorod province there were 409 publications, and in 1916 - only 218.

In Nizhni Novgorod in the end of XIX - the beginning of XX century gain the increasing extending the illustrated periodicals [97 [98] [99]. The Nizhniy Novgorod newspapers "Volgar", «the Local life», "Nizhegorodets", «Voice minina» published the informational materials, accompanying their various illustrations. In Nizhni Novgorod since 1906 there is an illustrated tabloid "Sudohodets", in 1908-1909 - an illustrated magazine "Monastery" for an orthodox monkhood, clergy and pilgrimage. In 1908 «the Desktop old believe illustrated calendar», the application to a monthly "Old Believers" is published.

In 1880-1890 advertising becomes the important element of registration of many Nizhniy Novgorod publications. Advertising sheets show a variety of type letterings, ornaments, type-setting subject images. The attention of readers is involved with colour advertising.

In destiny of Russia 1905 became epoch-making: numerous and scale revolutionary excitements have led to necessity of restriction of autocratic board [100]. The manifesto from October, 17th, 1905 granted to citizens a freedom of speech, printings, meetings, the unions. Process of creation of new periodicals has essentially become simpler. From the beginning of 1906 in regions new logs and newspapers of various directions began to appear. For reception of the permission to the publication any more it was not required to inform the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

In 1906-1917 the number of new periodicals in Nizhni Novgorod has sharply increased. Many of them promoted a political strike aggravation for authority. These are publications of Nizhniy Novgorod committee RSDRP: "Bulletin" (1906), "Work" (1907), «the Bulletin of the Nizhniy Novgorod Time revolutionary committee» (1917), «the Bulletin of Nizhniy Novgorod committee RSDRP», "Life", "Internatsional", «the Free people» and "People" - newspapers of sotsial-revolutionaries.

Publications of other political forces - «the Leaf of the Nizhniy Novgorod group of Party of National Freedom» konstitutsionno-democratic party (1906), «National freedom» party committee of National Freedom (1917).

There are publications of professional associations. In 1907 - «Privolzhsky peasantry» and «the Word of the handicraftsman». In 1914 - «the Bulletin of the Nizhniy Novgorod union of establishments of the small credit». In 1917 - «Freed prometej», the weekly newspaper of pochtovo-cable employees of the Nizhniy Novgorod district, «the Country newspaper».

The basic subjects of the Nizhniy Novgorod press 1905-1917 - political strike illumination in Russia. On pages of daily newspaper "minin" (19061907) representatives of the party of cadets have been shown as traitors of Russia [101]. In paper «Confession of the cadet» (№ 53 from 1906) ideas of transition of Russia to the democratic form of board by the constitutional transformations have been sized up as treacherous.

Typology of the pre-revolutionary Nizhniy Novgorod press. In the second half XIX - the beginning of XX century was not the special researches devoted to book business and periodicals. One of first who has addressed in the works to

To theme of development of a local press, was Ampere-second. Gatsisky. Its publication «Death of a province or not?», published subsequently the separate brochure, represented the post card to the known journalist and writer D.L.Mordorvtsevu in whom it polemizes with it about destinies of provincial printing, expressing confidence of its further development.

One of first to develop a typology of the Russian periodicals there has begun L.N.Pavlenkov. In paper «Book business in Russia in 1888» it has analysed all periodicals which were getting out in Russia during the investigated period. Under the program or under the maintenance L.N.Pavlenkov has gated out following types of the press: political, public, literary,

The help. L.N.Pavlenkov also classified periodicals to such typological signs, as a location, periodicity, duration of existence, publication language.

And. V.Peshehonov has analysed the private Russian political newspapers of daily periodicity which were getting out in October, 1900 [102 [103] [104]. And. V.Peshehonov did not do differences between the political and business press. Under the maintenance and composition of auditory Peshehonov gated out three types of the press: "big", "small" and "low-cost". According to a modern nomenclature, these types match qualitative, mass and gutter press

B.I.Yesin gates out following typological characteristics: a direction, the maintenance and the publication purpose, a reader's auditory, periodicity, system of publications of the given time [105]. We agree that the given characteristics are basic for the analysis

The pre-revolutionary press. B.I.Yesin names following types of logs of the general maintenance existing with XVIII - the beginnings of XX centuries: «the log of one person», the almanac, political, encyclopaedic, is art-literary, publicistic ». B.I.Yesin subdivides newspapers to a political sign on bourgeois-democratic, liberalnoburzhuaznye, narodnicheskie. The classification of pre-revolutionary logs presented by the author can be used and concerning newspaper periodicals of this period. S.J.Mahonina refuses typological division of the press on"party"принципу106. It subdivides the Russian press of the beginning of the XX-th century on qualitative, mass and parkway.

In 1920th S.I.Bogodin has made «the List of periodicals of the Nizhniy Novgorod province (1838-1928) », which has laid down in a basis of directory JU. G.Galaja and L.I.Shijan. Regional specialist J.G.Galaj has brought in the big contribution to studying of history of the Nizhniy Novgorod book business and the regional press, having published some materials about mutual relations of local figures of printing with acceptable department, about the first private Nizhniy Novgorod libraries, about collectors of books and keepers of book crop of the Nizhniy Novgorod edge. Great volume of the information on this theme contains in deeds of the Nizhniy Novgorod provincial inspector on affairs of printing and observing of printeries and lithographies of officials of special commissions at [106 [107] [108] [109] [110] Nizhniy Novgorod governor. The archive of these funds switches on data on opening and activity of printeries, the founders, the used equipment, quantity of employees, the information on publishing products, administrative punishments and criminal persuits of some editors and publishers, acceptable interdictions. The important data contain also statistical sources, materials central, zemskoj and departmental statistics.

For an estimation sotsiokulturnyh and business factors of development of polygraphic manufacture, book publishing and book trade in province statistical data for the separate years containing in «Surveys of the Nizhniy Novgorod province were used. Applications to vsepoddannejshemu to the report on a condition of the Nizhniy Novgorod province». Informations on development of library business in Nizhni Novgorod, about a reader's auditory, reader's preferences contains in materials of fund of the Nizhniy Novgorod urban public library: minutes of committee of library, sheets about receipt of books; reports on a library condition for different years.

It is necessary to note Ampere-second publications. Gatsisky, V.G.Korolenko, S.D.Protopopova, left valuable certificates on history of the Nizhniy Novgorod regional press. Spravochno-bibliographic publications E. V.Kurbakovoj109 embrace history of the Nizhniy Novgorod press in 1838 2007 the Literature devoted to history of the Nizhniy Novgorod press, it is presented, in the core, on the basis of collectors of materials of regional conferences. The interuniversity collector «mass-media of Nizhni Novgorod. History and the present» under the editorship of And. V.Kireevoj switches on some scientific articles about a local press.

Kurbakova, E. V.Gubernskaja authority and the press of the Russian province in 1811-1917: on materials of the Kazan and Nizhniy Novgorod provinces: dis.... dokt. ist. Sciences / E. V.Kurbakova//NNGASU. - N.Novgorod, 2009.

The majority of pre-revolutionary publications can be referred to to universal type ("Volgar", «the Nizhniy Novgorod exhibition help leaf», «Nizhniy Novgorod mail», «the Nizhniy Novgorod exchange leaf», «the Nizhniy Novgorod fair», «the Bulletin of the Nizhniy Novgorod union of establishments of the small credit» and others).

«The help leaf for the Nizhniy Novgorod fair» (1857-1863) at first had help character. However then its concept has changed. In 1864 the newspaper began to be called «the Nizhniy Novgorod exhibition help leaf». In it the share of analytical materials has increased. There were economic surveys («About a trade course at the Nizhniy Novgorod fair in 1863 That becomes at fair») and istoriko-economic sketches («Village Ivanovo and its relation to the Nizhniy Novgorod fair»), notes about Nizhni Novgorod, stories and feuilletons. Analogous conversion has gone through and «the Nizhniy Novgorod exchange leaf», renamed in "Volgar".

In the end the XIX-beginning of XX centuries in Nizhni Novgorod there were specialised magazines and newspapers. New publications of this type - «Works of the Nizhniy Novgorod branch of the Imperial society of navigation» (1902-1905), «News of council of cross-overs of ship-owners of the Volga basin (1911-1912),« the Volga navigation »(1912-1914), the newspaper« the Free Help leaf on navigation »(1902), the newspaper"Sudohodets"(1906-1918). Subsequently« the Nizhniy Novgorod bulletin of shipping company and the industry »(1886-1900) has been renamed into« Notes of the Nizhniy Novgorod branch of Russian technical society »(1901-1914).

The carried out analysis of the Nizhniy Novgorod press of the pre-revolutionary press allows to draw a leading-out that the majority of pre-revolutionary publications was combined in themselves by lines of business, political, literary, theatrical types. Before revolution of 1905 in Nizhni Novgorod there were no specialised literary, theatrical, sports publications. The literary, theatrical, musical periodical press has appeared in Bottom

Novgorod only in 1900th (logs "Theatre-goer", "First attempt at writing", the newspaper «Nizhniy Novgorod musical news», "Sinematograf"), and sports - only in a Post-Soviet time («the Nizhniy Novgorod sports»). To fill empty typological niches, the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals of the second half XIX-has begun XX centuries ("Volgar", «the Nizhniy Novgorod stock exchange», "Sudohodets", «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf», «Exhibition telegraph office») released applications which were political, advertising-help or entertaining publications. For example, tabloids "Volgar" - «Night leaf Volgarja» (1894-1899), «Night news Volgarja» (1901), «Morning messages Volgarja» (1908-1909), «Telegrams of newspaper Volgar» (19141916).

The majority of pre-revolutionary publications in Nizhni Novgorod was released in the newspaper form. Newspapers of this period had usually volume in four strips, a format - close to modern А2 ("Volgar") or А3 («the Nizhniy Novgorod exhibition help leaf»). Logs - format А4, volume - 24-94 pages. The text was composed in some columns (in newspapers from 2 to 6, in logs - 2), divided by vertical lines. In newspapers, as a rule, a horizontal line "cellarage" in which literary works were published separated. The monotonous type lettering, titles nenamnogo was characteristic were larger than a body matter. Illustrations were not used almost. In «the Help leaf for the Nizhniy Novgorod fair» were occasionally applied chernobelye graphical drawings (to registration of advertisements). Such drawings were used in «Nizhniy Novgorod mail». Then the newspaper began to publish portraits. The first picture has appeared in «the Nizhniy Novgorod exchange leaf» on July, 25th, 1900.

«The Nizhniy Novgorod exchange leaf» first among city newspapers began to place announcements on first and last strips. Its initiative have supported "Volgar", "Sudohodets". In advertising logs was a little, it was published usually in the end of number. Periodicity of the Nizhniy Novgorod business newspapers has been first connected with terms of conducting of fair.

Half of Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals getting out in 1857-1917 has existed less or hardly more year. From private pre-revolutionary publications newspapers "Volgar", existing 26 years (with 1892 for 1918), and «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf» - 25 years (with 1893 for 1917) were long-livers.

Circulations of newspapers on boundary XIX-XX centuries, usually made 1-3 thousand copies. The basic ways of extending - a subscription, retail (street messengers, boothes - during fair). Specialised publications practised a preferential subscription for workers of matching branch. Data on a subscription to periodicals were published in applications to vsepoddannejshim to reports on a condition of the Nizhniy Novgorod province, and also in the Nizhniy Novgorod memorable books.

In the end 1860 - the beginning of 1870th there were competent approximately 8 % of the population of the country (an order of 10 million persons) [111]. The analysis of reports of the Nizhniy Novgorod urban public library of the beginning of 1860th shows, that the bulk of visitors of library read exclusively periodicals, first of all, logs. Logs asked twice more often, than books of Russian authors which took the second place on number of demands [112]. In 1860-870 democratic literary and political logs, such as "Business", «Domestic notes», the liberal log «Bulletin of Europe» in which widely known products of fiction were published, publicism and the literary criticism, become used subsequently the classical popularity.

The volume of a reader's auditory was insignificant at this time. By the end of XIX century, it agree to data of the All-Russia census of 1897, the percent competent in Russia was equated 25-35 % - in villages and 35-50 % - in cities. In the Nizhniy Novgorod province (in comparison with others) this parametre was high enough - 50,3 % (in cities).

Reports of the Nizhniy Novgorod urban public library for different years testify that the bulk of visitors used exclusively newspapers (so, in 1889 was more than 59 % of readers). On number of demands local newspapers were in the lead: "Volgar" and «the Nizhniy Novgorod leaf». Interest to the press has especially increased during the first Russian revolution of 1905.

In programm paper of the editor of an informal part «Nizhniy Novgorod provincial sheets» Ampere-second. Gatsisky in 1862 the basic characteristics of provincial periodicals are noted: «Having started to read them, you see poverty and poverty of the maintenance. Except full interest of local statistical data, except data on a business course on introduction in province of the authorised reading and writing, some decisions of provincial presence on country affairs and government orders on a country question, almost after all anything also is not present» [113 [114].

Deficiency of professional journalists, low activity of townspeople,

The guarded relation to the press of inhabitants, low level of printeries on

The initial stage of development of the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals are the main things

Problems which the Nizhniy Novgorod press at the initial stage has faced

The development. On the editor of periodicals fell out very big

Loading: «It and papers, whether it be even simple advertising or

Bibliographic news - prepare for printing itself, run and in censorship,

Sit and in printery behind a proof of hour three - four - itself, and under an hour and

Personal from the customer (or as at us name: the publicist, from a word

The publication) accept, count how many in it of letters... After that remains after all only still the newspaper to the editor to subscribers to separate! »[115], - complained to Ampere-second. Gatsisky. Editors wrote leading articles. C.Vetrinsky referred to pressure of authority, censorship, on low incomes of provincial logs. Under its certificate, often employees remained [116] without fees.

As a whole, the Nizhniy Novgorod periodicals in 1838-1917 developed qualitativly and quantitatively, thus private publications were the most popular. It means that in the given time span reader's preferences, instead of mutual relations with power structures, were a major factor of success of periodicals. Therefore it is necessary to abstain from categorical positive or negative estimations of activity of a management of province on periodicals development. On the one hand, the state censorship was the negative factor restricting a freedom of speech in a press. With another, absence of censorship could generate a journalistic arbitrariness and irresponsibility.

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A source: Pugachev Vadim Igorevich. DYNAMIC LOUDSPEAKER of the TYPOLOGY of the NIZHNIY NOVGOROD PRESS (1991-2013). 2014

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  13. Development of the Russian legislation on a parity of objects of the copyright and trade marks during the period till 1917
- Acoustic devices and systems - Aerials, OHF devices and their technologies - Aerodynamics and processes of heat exchange of flying machines - Automation and management of technological processes and manufactures (on branches) - Aviation and space-rocket technics - Bases and the bases, underground constructions - Biotechnology of foodstuff (on branches) - Building - Building designs, buildings and constructions - Building materials and products - Building mechanics - Cars, motor industry - Chemical technology of fuel and high-energy substances - Chemistry technology - Computer science, computer facilities and management - Computers and systems - Control and test of flying machines and their systems - Designing and a design of courts - Designing and building of roads, undergrounds, airdromes, bridges and transport tunnels - Designing, a design and manufacture of flying machines - Devices and a quality monitoring of an environment, substances, materials and products - Devices and measurement methods by kinds of measurements - Devices and methods for measurement of an ionising radiation and x-ray devices - Devices and methods of transformation of images and a sound - Devices, systems and products of medical appointment - Document-knowledge, àðõèâ-knowledge - Documentary information - Durability and thermal modes of flying machines - Dynamics, ballistics, traffic control of flying machines - Electrical engineer - Electromecanics and electric devices - Electronics - Electrotechnical complexes and systems - Electrotechnical materials and products - Electrotechnologies and an electric equipment in agriculture - Electrotechnology - Elements and devices of computer facilities and control systems - Energy devices on the basis of renewed kinds of energy - Engineering geometry and computer drawing - Engineering geometry and computer drawing - Engineering technology - Fire and industrial safety (on branches) - Foundry manufacture - Friction and deterioration in machines - Goodsknowing foodstuff and technology of products of public catering - Goodsknowing the industrial goods and light industry raw materials - Heat supply, ventilation, an air conditioning, gas supply and illumination - Hromatogrophy and Hromatogrophyses devices - Hydraulic engineering building - Hydraulic machines and Hydropneumaticunits - Hydraulics and an engineering hydrology - Industrial fishery - Industrial power system - Information systems and processes, legal aspects of computer science - Information-measuring and operating systems (on branches) - Instrument making, metrology both information-measuring devices and systems - Knowing machines, systems of drives and a detail of machines - Labour safety (on branches) - Land complexes, the starting equipment, operation of flying machines - Library science and bibliology - Light engineering - Machines and devices, processes of refrigerating and cryogenic technics, central airs and life-support - Machines, units and processes (on branches) - Management in social and economic systems - Management of processes of transportations - Manufacture Organization (on branches) - Materials Science - Materials technology (on branches) - Materials technology of manufactures textile and light industry - Mathematical and software of computers, complexes and computer networks - Mathematical modelling, numerical methods and complexes of programs - Mechanical engineering and knowing machines - Membranes and membraneses technology - Metallurgical science and thermal processing of metals - Metallurgy - Metallurgy of black, colour and rare metals - Metallurgy of technogenic and secondary resources - Methods and systems of protection of the information, èíôîðìàöèîííÿ safety - Metrology and metrological maintenance - Motor transport Operation - Mountain machines - Navigation and an air traffic control - Navigation Devices - Nuclear and radiating safety - Nuclear power installations, including designing, operation and a conclusion from operation - Nuclear reactor building, machines, units and technology of materials of the nuclear industry - Operation of air transport - Optical both optiko-electronic devices and complexes - Physical fields of the ship, ocean, atmosphere and their interaction - Powder metallurgy and composite materials - Power - Power electronics - Power plants and power systems - Power systems and complexes - Power, metallurgical and chemical mechanical engineering - Processes and devices of chemical technologies - Processes and devices of food manufactures - Processes and machines of agroengineering systems - Processing of constructional materials in mechanical engineering - Processing of metals by pressure - Quality monitoring and diagnostics in mechanical engineering - Quantum electronics - Radar-location and radio navigation - Radio engineering and communication - Radio engineering, including systems and TV devices - Radio measuring devices - Road, building and hoisting-and-transport machines - Robots, mechatroniks and roboticses systems - Rolling stock of railways, draught of trains and electrician - Safety in extreme situations (on branches) - Safety of activity of the person - Sailing charter Operation, navigation - Ship power installations and their elements (main and auxiliary) - Shipbuilding - Solid-state electronics, radio-electronic components, micro-and íàíîýëåêòðîíèêà on quantum effects - Standardization and product quality control - System analysis, management and information processing (on branches) - Systems of automation of designing (on branches) - Systems, networks and devices of telecommunications - Technical aesthetics and design - Technical science - Technics of high pressure - Technologies and machines of processing by pressure - Technologies and machines Weldining manufactures - Technologies and maintenance service means in agriculture - Technologies and means of mechanisation of agriculture - Technology and building organisation - Technology and equipment for manufacture of semiconductors, materials and devices of electronic technics - Technology and a preprocessing of textile materials and raw materials - Technology and machines of timber cuttings and a forestry - Technology and processing of polymers and composites - Technology and the equipment of chemical processing of a biomass of a tree; wood chemistry - Technology and the equipment of mechanical and physicotechnical processing - Technology of a skin and fur - Technology of electrochemical processes and protection against corrosion - Technology of fats, essence and perfumery-cosmetic products - Technology of food products - Technology of garments - Technology of inorganic substances - Technology of instrument making - Technology of materials and products textile and light industry - Technology of meat, dairy and fish products and refrigerating manufactures - Technology of mechanical engineering - Technology of organic substances - Technology of processing, storage and processing of cereal, bean cultures, groats products, fruits-vegetables production and wine growing - Technology of rare, absent-minded and radioactive elements - Technology of shipbuilding, ship repair and organisation of ship-building manufacture - Technology of shoe and kozhevenno-notions products - Technology of silicate and refractory nonmetallic materials - Technology of sugar and sugary products - Technology of tea, tobacco and biologically active substances and subtropical cultures - Technology, machines and the equipment of timber cuttings, a forestry, tree-processings and chemical processing of a biomass of a tree - Telecommunication systems and computer networks - Theoretical bases of computer science - Theoretical the electrical engineer - Theory of mechanisms and machines - Theory of the ship and building mechanics - Thermal engines - Thermal power plants, their power systems and units - Thermal, electrorocket engines and energydevice flying machines - Track, research and designing of railways - Transport - Transport and transportno-technological systems of the country, its regions and cities, manufacture organisation on transport - Transport, mountain and building mechanical engineering - Turbomachines and combined turbounits - Vacuum and plasma electronics - Vacuum, compressor technics and pneumatic systems - Water supply, water drain, building systems of protection of water resources - Waterways of the message and hydrography - Wheel and tracklaying vehicles - Wood-knowledge, technology and the equipment tree-processings -