§ 2 Theocracy as an ideal

It is possible to understand as the theocracy not only religious-political systems meeting in history where the basic spheres of ability to live are regulated by religious-legal instructions. It is also an ideal, speculative image of interpersonal relations.

The Idejnoyoteoretichesky maintenance of concept of the theocracy on the origin is religious. As a rule, theocratic views developed within the limits of separate dogmas. In many dogmas there are representations about the Kingdom Divine (paradise), i.e. about a certain highest, ideal society where people live under a direct divine management in bezzabotnoyoschastlivom leisure, in full harmony divine will. In a paradise kingdom triumphs kindly, justice, love, there is not present mutual quarrels and conflicts. The kingdom Divine sees in the past events of the past or in

To V remote prospect of the future mankind, accepting "Golden Age" forms, “kingdoms of the son human” etc. the Given views anyhow are present at all dogmas, including in religions of the elementary unwritten cultures [23]. In separate dogmas, for example in drevneegipetskoj religions, Islam, the Buddhism, zoroastrizme, Christianity and some other, representations about the Kingdom Divine reach high degree of development. Their formation was influenced by historical conditions of a life of the people, loans from other religious traditions, and also intensive spiritual experience of prophets and seminary students.

With reference to the Kingdom Divine hardly it is possible to speak about political relations and a religious-legal regulation. Though the paradise life described by various religions also is most that on is true bogovlastiem, but in strict sense of a word it is impossible to name it

The theocracy. Value of the analysis of representations about the Kingdom Divine for the present research consists that all concepts, and also practical models theocratic and kvaziteokraticheskoj the authorities (it will be a question of it more low) were inspired by these representations. The kingdom Divine acts for the theocracy as an ideal, a development ultimate goal. Thoughts on it disturb minds as theorists, and experts of the theocracy, interested persons of returning of "gold" last or prompt approach of the paradise future.

Myths about the Kingdom Divine depending on the basic moments j can be subdivided maintenances on eschatological and genetic. The first

: Draw a picture of a doomsday, an apocalypse which is coming to the end with the divine

і court and revival of righteous persons for an eternal life in the Kingdom Divine. To

Eschatological ideals of the theocracy should carry Judaic representations about the Kingdom of the Son human, Christian revelations about

«An establishment of a 1000-year-old kingdom of the Christ and new Jerusalem, shiitskoe

j the doctrine about returning and board over the world of last twelfth imam

And some other. Genetic myths connect the Kingdom Divine with times of irrevocably left past. Ancient Greek legends concern them about a legendary epoch of "Golden Age", daosskie and konfutsianskie representations about perfect board of the first emperors

The celestial.

і Religious doctrines are so various, that similar differentiations

• accurately it is possible to make under the relation not to all dogmas.


Religious dogmas contain an image of the Kingdom Divine which lays as in

The beginning, and in the end of human history. For example, Christian


j the theocracy - new Jerusalem, is simultaneously the beginning and the end or,

' I

| Speaking Revelation language, «an alpha and omegoj» all real.

I representations Meeting in religious texts about the Kingdom Divine,


| Certainly, are connected with politiko-pravovoi the validity ranneklassovyh


■ the states, being in a certain measure reflexion of the power of priests and

Religious-legal regulation of public relations. Konkretnoyoistorichesky character the description of board of legendary governors - founders of the states possesses, for example: Menesa, Romula, Rema, Teseja, just Chinese vanov etc. But in not smaller degree they contain the mythical, fantastic motives connected with a divine origin or election of terrestrial governors, with presence at them supernatural abilities. In relation to social interactions and theoretical models of the theocracy they act also as an independent, independent phenomenon. Besides, from the point of view of religious consciousness, the divine world order with harmony of divine and human relations reigning in it possesses bolshej a reality, than a terrestrial life: the god is true life. Ideas of the Kingdom Divine render on a historical reality very strong return influence, changing it "in his own image".

Ideals of the Christian theocracy have been described Avgustinom Blissful. One of its main products and is called «About hailstones Divine». «Peering at apologetic activity Avgustina - Evgenie Trubetskoj wrote, - we will see, that all it is not that other, as the sermon bogovlastija... Eternal tsarstvie Bozhie in doctrine Avgustina receives that value which remains behind it in history of western Catholicism, value of the program which should carry out in itself church in the course of gradual historical development» ’. In our opinion, to estimate creativity Avgustina as apologetics bogovlastija, found an embodiment in the medieval Catholic theocracy, not absolutely truly. On ideas Avgustina antitheocratic movements in church were formed also. So, the evangelic Christianity which has apprehended the doctrine developed by the thinker about divine good fortune, denied the power of church hierarchy and abolished the intermediary

1 Trubetsky E.Religiozno-obshchestvennyj an ideal of the western Christianity in V century. CH I. A world view Blissful Avgustina. M, 1892. With. 52, 161.

Mission of church in business of rescue of human souls. Politiko-legal sights Blissful Avgustina are inconsistent and in some moments bear a print of mixture of Christianity with platonizmom and legal ideology of Ancient Rome. As a result of it the seminary student shows inconsistency and frequently does not spend accurate differentiation natural (terrestrial) and supernatural (divine) life usages that leads to thought on an identification it of Hailstones Divine - true bogovlastija with Christian church operating in the terrestrial world. The all-round analysis of its creativity gives the basis to believe, that it not so.

The hailstones Divine and church are represented in doctrine Avgustina by different substances. The Divine Hailstones described by the seminary student do not grow out of historical life of church and consequently theoretically cannot serve for it as the program of actions. Soglasuja the doctrine with Scriptus postulates, Avgustin foretells approach of the Kingdom Divine in the end of times, on termination of last court and in a life not terrestrial, but heavenly. «The hailstones Divine do not wander in a mortal life, and are always immortal in heavens» 1 - the seminary student speaks. « The hailstones in which it is promised to us to reign differ from it as the sky from the earth, as pleasure time from a life eternal, as strong glory from an empty praise, as a society of angels from a society mortal »2. Only in Hailstones Divine people and angels will sojourn in never-ending pleasure and love, in eternal leisure and contemplation of the god. To people here does not threaten neither the death, nor the illness, all their desires remain satisfied. The hailstones Divine are« vyshny hailstones, where a victory - true, where advantage - sanctity, where the world - pleasure, where a life - eternity... »3. The hailstones Divine are Jesus Christ church, but not in a terrestrial embodiment, and in heavenly which can occur upon termination of human history.

·avgustin Avrely, episk. Ipponijsky. About hailstones bozhiem: In 22 to.: Repr. izd. / blissful Avgustin. - M, 1994. T. And. С.222.

2 In the same place. T. 1. With. 275.

3 In the same place. T I. With. 116.

In the time world, according to Avgustina, there is a selection in a divine kingdom. A terrestrial life - only preparation for Hailstones Divine. Everything will get to it not, but only the Christians consolidated in church living on the god. A community of righteous persons - a logic condition and an empirical basis of existence in the future of Divine Hailstones which in the present life is only in wandering. «... Though it here again gives rise to the citizens in which person wanders, there will not come yet time of its kingdom when it will collect all revived with their bodies and when the last will give a promised kingdom in which they will be the Glavoju, by the Tsar of centuries, to reign endlessly time» [24].

The ideal theocratic society should consolidate, on a plan Blissful Avgustina, not only mankind and angels, but also all organic and inorganic world. It is universal and vseobemljushche. «The hailstones Divine are the Supreme principle of the world organisation and a creation ultimate goal» [25]. The theocracy introduces in life of the Universe perfection in the form of hierarchical orderliness. The physical world in it is subordinated to the world to an animal which, in turn, is subordinated to the purposes and interests of the person, being entirely in the power of the god. Bogovlastie - the purpose and the justification kosmosotsialnogo a universum, its creative transformation and the finished ideal.

Many positions of Christian idea of world Hailstones Bozhija have been borrowed subsequently by preachers of the theocracy. An illegibility of a designation of sides between eternal and time world orders have allowed them to put the doctrine of the seminary student on protection of the interests. It concerned mainly ideas Avgustina about a universal role of the Christian church consolidating and organizujushchej kosmosotsialnyj an order of life, and otstaivaemoj with the seminary student in numerous polemics with heretics of a position about

Immutable authority of universal church. «Unity of a system of the Universe, space value tsarstvija Bozhija, objectivity and universality of its Divine basis, value of good fortune as organizujushchego a social principle, the power of church over the world, - all these thoughts Avgustinova of the doctrine should be considered as necessary assumptions of medieval theocratic outlook» [26]. In the spirit of the medieval theocracy the substantiation the father of church of the state prosecution of heretics and conducting religious wars sounded.

The concept of the Muslim theocracy in the most complete kind has found reflexion in creativity sunnitskogo the lawyer is scarlet-mavardi. By the moment of a writing of the work «board Laws» Arabian halifat as the uniform theocratic state has broken up, therefore before the thinker there was a problem of theoretical judgement of bases of Muslim statehood for the purpose of the subsequent restoration halifata. According to the lawyer, halifat is the divine creation, called to protect Islamic belief and to carry out fair board over all world. Mission halifata will be considered finished after conquest and the reference in Moslem of all "incorrect" and establishments over them the uniform and indivisible power of the Caliph. In the world Muslim state its head - the Caliph should connect in the person the power spiritual - great imamat and political - emirat.

Following sunnitskoj traditions of Islam, it is scarlet-mavardi gives the right of election of the Caliph to a Muslim community, providing however and appointment as the Caliph to itself the successor. The lawyer in details considers questions of formation of the Supreme power in halifate, analyzing a place, time, a way, conditions of election of the Caliph, and also quality which should possess both candidates on the higher state post, and electors. The option it is scarlet-mavardi gives to the most authoritative representatives of religion -

mudzhtahidam and fakiham, and also to the higher state dignitaries. The main thing that the selected Caliph has been recognised mudzhtahidami and the Muslim community presented by people, by gathered in a capital cathedral mosque [27]. After elections devout are obliged to take to the Caliph the oath.

Relations between the head halifata and the people (a Muslim community) are under construction on a contractual basis and provide the mutual rights and duties of the parties. The basic duties of the Caliph were: Moslem doctrine protection, the permission of intracommunal disputes and conflicts, departure of functions of the head of divine service (imam) on a Friday pray, execution of sentences on criminal cases, collecting of taxes, appointment of officials and the control over controls. The rights of the Caliph followed from functions of managements by a Muslim community. Essential restrictions on activity of the head of Islam imposed the divine law and religious authorities. The Caliph could not zakonodatelstvovat on the questions settled by norms of the Moslem law. In other cases of its decision required board approval mudzhtahidov, received in the form of the legal conclusion (fetvy). The people had duties to obey the Caliph and to help it in sacred mission of maintenance bogoustanovlennogo an order. Behind a community the right of overthrow of the Caliph in case of default of the duties by it admitted. Lawful basis of displacement of the Caliph was also loss of mental faculties by it, sight or hearing as it interfered with appropriate execution of the higher administrative functions.

In Russia the theocratic idea has received for the first time theoretical registration in works of patriarch Nikona which has acted with the theocratic concept of the power [28]. Reasonings Nikona ran counter as to the considered

Ideal for Orthodoxy a symphonic principle of harmony and partner vzaimosotrudnichestva the states and churches, and with established in Byzantium, and then received development and in Russia, tradition of domination of the tsar in church.

The patriarch gave reason for the position, referring to the Scriptus maintenance. Being based on examples of Bible history, he approved about a primacy of the ecclesiastical authority over the secular: «priesthood from the God, and from priesthood tsars receive pomazanie on a kingdom... Where there is any word of the Christ, that the tsar has the power over Church.» [29]. In turn priests receive the power from good fortune of the Holy Spirit. The superiority of church hierarchy over the secular is caused by that the clergy carries out more considerable functions, than the wordly power. « Bodies, but to priests of soul of people are charged the tsar. The tsar releases monetary debts, and the priest sins. One forces, another consoles. One is at war with enemies, another with the beginnings and governors of darkness of this century. Therefore and the priesthood is a lot of above a kingdom »[30] - concludes Nikon. Church and the government it visually shows a parity in images of the Sun and the Moon. The sun as the light source, personifies his soul in the person, and in a society - the episcopal power. The moon borrowing light from the Sun, is identified in the person with its body and in social sphere - with the imperial power.

Nikon condemned the tsar for appointment and displacement of bishops, convocation of Cathedrals and intervention in intrachurch affairs, considering that on it the sanction of the representative of church clergy should be obligatory. The tsar - only one of members of church who should show the sample of piety and humility. For infringement of its Divine law as apostate it is possible even to separate from church. The big discontent caused in the patriarch
sekuljarizatsija the church property. The major care of the tsar is a protection of church, «for possession of the tsar - as is written by the patriarch, - can be never strongly approved and to be fortunate when position of his mother - Churches Bozhiej is not established firmly...» [31]. For the sake of protection of the episcopate and clergy Nikon urges the tsar to wage war against enemies of orthodox belief.

It is necessary to recognise, that last thesis nikonovskoj programs in a current of the long period was actual for imperial Russia and is quite conformable also to our time. Whether are covered behind references of ecclesiastics to strengthen activity of the state control over the various religious associations which have appeared recently in Russia and sects theocratic motives? Put forward as the argument of a similar position the aspiration to stop morally-mental decomposition of people, first of all the youth, the so-called totalitarian sects which have got under influence, can have also under itself desire of representatives of traditional creeds by forces of the government to eliminate newly appeared konfessionalnyh competitors.

Teokratizm the Nikonovsky concept of the power consisted not so much in the doctrine about a primacy of priesthood before a kingdom, how many in its plan to subordinate a public life to norms of religion. The church law, according to the patriarch, for the state is inviolable, as has the higher validity in comparison with the secular right. The state legislation should correspond to church canons. In case of their discrepancy, the law should not obey.

Hardly last requirements could be realised actually, however, as the researcher of creativity of Russian patriarch M.V.Zyzykin marked, itself Nikon did not execute the instruction of the imperial power,

If they contradicted canons of orthodox belief [32]. Divergences of patriarch Nikona with the theory and practice of mutual relations of the orthodox state with church have turned back for it deprivation of the patriarchal dignity and dispatch from Moscow in Ferapontov Belozersky a monastery.

Theocracy ideals described not only seminary students and religious philosophers. Political bogovlastija rationalistically conceiving scientists were engaged in a substantiation of advantages. Having been disappointed in omnipotence of scientific progress, Sen-Simon at a late stage of the creativity developed the doctrine according to which for disposal of a society of troubles of poverty and defects of egoism the spiritual power should take protection over secular establishments [33]. In the end of life Fridrih SHlegel has come to conclusion, that the theocratic idea is the most thorough and is unique the true state theory. He dreamt to see the theocracy in an image of Christian republic with connection and submission of the higher state and military power of church hierarchy [34].

In the most systematised kind the concept of merge of the religious and political power is expressed in products ZHozefa de Mestra (1754 1821). Being on belief the monarchist, he flayed the French revolution and its legislative innovations. De Mestr considered, that over the government consolidating the people in ordered unity, there should be a church hierarchy led by the Roman high priest. «The European monarchy cannot be approved differently as by means of religion - he wrote, and the daddy» 3 can be the universal monarch only. Organic integrity spiritual and temporal power,

Dogmas and the rights, according to De Mestra, corresponds to true nature of the state generality.

The theocratic concept of the power is not settled by sights about domination in a life of people of religious standards of behaviour and representations about the political power of religious authorities. The given is formal-defined properties have been allocated as legal signs of the theocracy, allowing to analyze it as gosudarstvennoyopravovoj a phenomenon. The theocratic concept of the power, being the phenomenon of an ideal, cogitative order, includes also a set of certain cogitative structures: concepts, images, symbols and the communications constituting a logic basis of theocratic ideology. The analysis of various views on the theocratic concept of the power, including revealing of the general for them logiko-cogitative structures though it is carried out not on teoretiko-legal, and at philosophical level, represents nevertheless for research of a problem of the theocratic state importance as at the heart of all historical theocracies the invariable set of the cogitative images defining an originality of theocratic interactions lays.

At logic level theocratic representations are similar the general for them concepts and the communications consolidated in messianic, hiliasticheskuju and eschatological ideas. Eshatologizm (eshatologija - the religious doctrine about a doomsday) theocratic idea is expressed in thought that with construction of the theocratic state on the earth paradise and historical development will be established will come to the end with a unification of the person good luck. Hiliazm (the Christian doctrine about thousand-year board on Jesus Christ earth) though it is connected with Christianity, nevertheless in the modified form is present and at not Christian theocratic doctrines. It is presented by image of perfect board of the theocratic leader possessing owing to occupied position divine gift to solve all arising

Difficulties and to extend good fortune to members political bogovlastija. The Messianizm of theocratic sights is shown in the form of idea of the selected people bearing in the world true belief to which only and probably to reach the Kingdom Divine.

The theocratic system of the power is realised in those states where for this purpose there are corresponding political and social and economic preconditions. To its realisation actually promote also favorable ideological, to be exact - a psychological climate. It, in turn, is created by certain features of outlook and thinking of these or those people which can be at level collective unconscious, i.e. to be arhetipicheskimi. These features can coincide with logic of theocratic thinking. In that case probably to establish that structural components of theocratic idea are presented not only in separate products of philosophers and seminary students, but also in a mentality of the whole ethnoses, the people, the nations.

Historical practice confirms the present assumption. Specificity of national psychology of Jews, namely their belief in the messianic mission, influenced defining image formation of the theocratic power in ancient Israel and continues to influence on teokratichnost modern Jewish statehood. The messianic idea acts as motive power of creation of Christian and Muslim theocracies. Messianizm, according to Nikolay Berdjaeva, is actually that soil on which there were historical Christian theocracies [35]. With distribution in Russia in XV century of idea «Moscow - the third Rome» and the statement, thus, in national consciousness of Russian of the world-wide and historical mission, in the state life theocratic tendencies were not slow to be shown.

On arhetipicheskie properties of theocratic ideology has turned I.A.Isaev's attention. It has considered theocratic properties of Russian statehood XV-XVII of centuries as «special style of political, ideological, state thinking» and has revealed aspiration of the theocracy to totalizatsii the authorities. The scientist has very truly noticed, that the theocracy as idea is characterised by not so much is formal-defined signs of politiko-legal mutual relations of the state and church, a policy and religion, and how many features of logic of theocratic thinking: « In a theocratic stereotype of state-legal thinking characteristic is not only and not so much degree of correlation and division of the spiritual and secular authorities. On the contrary, for it the aspiration to totalizatsii is peculiar, and ideological character of thinking stimulates first of all totalizatsiju spiritual and invisible aspects of the power... Totality of similar political thinking was stimulated first of all with deep idea vseedinstva which, in our opinion, can be defined as some kind of an archetype »[36]. It is necessary to agree with scientific that totality of thinking is one of components of a theocratic reflexion, and representation about vseedinstve - one of the main things that of philosophising of many domestic thinkers, is based in depths of our collective unconscious.

The generality of cogitative structures of theocratic concepts is caused by their general ideologically-theoretical basis. The theocratic ideology is based on religious representations. Messianizm, eshatologizm, hiliazm, vseedinstvo concern structural components of religious outlook. Degree of development of the given representations in concrete dogmas is various, but all of them anyhow are present at them just as are present at theocratic doctrines. Theocratic

The idea is the politized religion. Any attempts of nationalisation of religion, its use in political ends should be considered as display teokratizatsii the authorities.

The question on theocratic ideals is connected with a problem so-called kvaziteokraticheskih theories. The last represent doctrines about the best social system in which basis the rational arguments proving secular models of the power lay. In some cases similar theories have the materialistic and antireligious maintenance. At all seeming difference of religious ideology and theocratic models from kvaziteokraticheskih theories between them is much in common, even at obvious ateistichnosti the last. The generality of theocratic ideals and the mentioned doctrines consists in the identical logic of their theoretical modelling. The term kvaziteokratija is rather conditional and is applied only to an articulation of religious components of the certain political doctrine or institutes and the structures of the political power similar to the theocratic. The prefix kvazi urged to underline the remote, symbolical similarity of considered forms of the power.

The identity of the cogitative forms laying in the basis kvaziteokraticheskih and theocratic theories, is caused by their general religious-mythological underlying reason, and in some cases, derivative character of the first doctrines from the second. The logic of religious outlook shown in the general cogitative structures, laws and language of the description of social ideals of the given doctrines, makes related them. The last act as only different projections of the same religious motives and myths. neosoznanno or meaningly basic components of religious and theocratic doctrines have been transferred, to be exact are transformed, in secular doctrines of a social system. At similar transformation the religious maintenance is emasculated, therefore new theories already it is impossible

To name actually theocratic and more correctly to call kvaziteokraticheskimi.

To kvaziteokraticheskim to theories it is possible to carry the project of the ideal state of Platon, Thomas Mora's Utopia, national socialism and Marxism doctrines, a number of other doctrines. The fact of close similarity of the specified doctrines with religious and theocratic views was marked by scientists repeatedly. The general, that makes related them is istoriosofskie the motives connected with messianic, eschatological and other representations, constituting as already it has been found out earlier, structures of a theocratic reflexion. So, E.Trubetskoj considered, that Platon's ideal society - ellinsky a theocracy variant in the narrow form of a city-state [37]. In works of known philosophers N.Berdjaeva, S.Bulgakov, B.Russell and visible religioveda M.Eliade is spent thought on deep religious roots of the Marxist doctrine. Mircha Eliade writes: « Marx borrows and develops one of the greatest eschatological myths of the Asian-Mediterranean region, namely: iskupitelnuju Jesus Christ role ("elect", "anointed sovereign", "innocent", "messenger"; compare - today - proletariat), whose sufferings have been urged to change the ontologic status of the world »[38]. And U.Berken responds about Marxist ideology as about a modern wordly variant of the theocracy [39].

Messianizm kvaziteokraticheskih theories it is shown in their hope of coming of the deliverer, capable to resolve all problems of human existence. This role is taken away by the selected works - to estate, a class or the race, headed by authoritative leaders - the leader, the governor, the prince or group of the most formed and progressively conceiving people - philosophers,

filarhov, parties etc. Hiliazm - the doctrine about a thousand-year Kingdom Divine on the earth, is reproduced in the form of idea about the Third Reich, a communistic society etc. Sekuljarizirovannoe the Kingdom Divine is a universal, comprehensive universum, a society of the absolute justice full of freedom and happiness. As well as in a paradise life all social contradictions there act in film: is not present rich and poor, is absent angrily, the violence, oppression of the person by the person, reigns an order and edinomyslie on all questions. Eshatologija kvaziteokraticheskih doctrines it is expressed in representations about end of human development after achievement by a society ideal, from the point of view of the doctrine, a condition. A perfect society in such doctrines, as well as the Kingdom Divine in theocratic concepts - a history ultimate goal. Further the mankind already waits for nothing: its destiny has come true. Ways of achievement of such condition look similar also: For this purpose it is required to change developed way of social relations cardinally. The huge return of energy accompanied by internal pressure and external struggle against resisting forces is thus necessary.

Kvaziteokratichesky theories, as well as theocratic, are totalitarian. They cover themselves all spheres of human ability to live: a policy, economy, the right, formation and all levels of life: personal, family, state, public, applying frequently on universal scale.

Function of the "Holy Writ" containing religious revelations, in kvaziteokraticheskom society works of theorists of Marxism, national socialism etc. carry out Their positions, as well as divine canons, contain eternal true and, therefore, are inviolable and unchangeable. The religious-legal regulation of public relations is replaced with system of dogmatic instructions dominating kvaziteokraticheskogo doctrines which starts to be perceived as belief. The monopoly of religious authorities on normotvorcheskuju activity is carried out in the form of monopoly for development of ideology and valid standards of behaviour

The selected groups - party or philosophers. Similar comparisons can be continued and further. The main conclusion which is necessary for making of the resulted analysis consists that kvaziteokraticheskie the idea and model of the power is waited by the same fate, as theocratic. All of them are doomed to failure as comprise unsoluble contradictions. They are only rationalised, approached to real conditions of existence of people interpretations of myths.

The ideal of theocratic aspirations - the Kingdom Divine in the basic lines very strongly differs from real-life theocracies. With practice political bogovlastija it is possible to express its parity accordingly through categories "due" and "real". Historical theocracies always are embodiment attempts actually religious representations about the Kingdom Divine, and, always unsuccessful. Other also cannot be, as in practice of realisation of theocratic idea the insuperable contradictions causing its unrealizability contain.

Practice of an embodiment of theocratic idea is based on the unilateral analysis of religious dogma. It represents a deviation (deformation) of religious consciousness from standards of religious thinking. Deformation of theocratic consciousness consists, first, in antinomichnosti, i.e. in logic discrepancy of attempts of construction of theocracies to religious sights as that, secondly, in anomichnosti, i.e. in valuable discrepancy of theocratic practice and religious idea.

antinomichnost realisations of theocratic idea it is caused by an originality of the approach of theocratic consciousness to a parity of spiritual and wordly usages of life. The religious sight at a surrounding reality postulates its division into two spheres: the higher - "heavenly", sometimes named the Kingdom Divine and the lowest - "terrestrial", called by the Kingdom of the Caesar. Divine life admits original and eternal, and terrestrial

Existence - incomplete and derivative from divine. Aspiring to overcome resulting division of the world alienation of the person from the god, the religion establishes fixed in the form of doctrines of any dogma samples of thinking and behaviour, following which the person reaches an eternal life. According to religious outlook the eternal life in the Heavenly Kingdom is achievable only after death. In the theocracy the opposition "heavenly" - "terrestrial" acts in film in more radical way. Political bogovlastie tries to carry out the Kingdom Divine in a life time, "terrestrial". Wishing to approach its arrival more likely, the theocracy makes active influence on interpersonal relations political means. Representation about merge in time prospect of two various plans of life - Kingdoms Divine and Kingdoms of the Caesar washes away between them borders, calling into question religious, i.e. Binding between potustoronnim and "terrestrial" world orders character of religious-legal instructions. Finally the antinomy of theocratic consciousness leads to full negation of religion.

In basic sources of all dogmas anywhere directly it is not specified in that the religious norms fixed in them were realised by political methods. "Scriptuses" do not urge to establish for the sake of realisation of postulates of belief religioznoyopoliticheskuju the power. Theocratic vlasteotnoshenija are faster result of tradition of religious-political management which originates since times ranneklassovyh the states, and in some cases act as a result of inadequate interpretation of religious norms. The aspiration caused by the various reasons to subordinate behaviour of people of the religious power brings certain correction in perception of religious norms. The canons mismatching theocratic samples, remain in the theocracy "dead letter" and are not applied. The norms answering to theocratic aspiration, get in the political

bogovlastii the raised importance. Abstract character of religious positions allows to interpret loosely their maintenance, and also to see a theocratic context there where it obviously is absent. For example, it is possible to mean conducting military actions by "jihad" on protection and Moslem doctrine distribution, and it is possible - and internal fcb perfection of the person on a way to the god. Christian position “everyone

The power from the god "is interpreted in the theocracy as a recognition of political domination of church, but it can be understood and as the justification of the social

Value and the importance of institute of the power.

The given antinomy is in the theocracy not unique. Thought about

Embodiment in reality of a divine ideal it is inconsistent. Whether it is possible to contain absolute, boundless divine life within the limits of relative, final life? No. Evgenie Trubetskoj, criticising the project of universal theocracy Vl. Soloveva, has very truly noted: “the Theocratic ideal of integrity and predelnosti lives cannot be reached not only within the state, but also within all in general sinful, imperfect that is why - the becoming world” [40] Theocratic ideal cannot be realised in the completeness: or the Kingdom Divine as a result of qualitative transformation becomes the Kingdom of the Caesar, losing thus the higher religious sense, or the Kingdom of the Caesar towers (or on the contrary, goes down) to the Kingdom Divine, that besides attracts its transition

And in other qualitative condition. The union of the Heavenly hailstones and the Hailstones terrestrial without

Changes of their intrinsic properties cannot be, as there can not be a water snow or day night. The real embodiment of a theocratic ideal does not have a place either on the earth, or in heavens. It is utopian.

Valuable discrepancy of theocratic practice to religious sights is connected with the decision in the theocracy of a question on a parity of the purpose and
Social policy means. Limitation and estrangement of human existence is overcome in the theocracy not on the basis of a free spiritual choice of the person, and by means of compulsory force religioznoyopoliticheskogo communities. Finding in it the main contradiction and a theocracy lie, Nikolay Berdjaev wrote: «the Theocracy, in all forms, east and western was change to Christianity, change and lie. And theocracies have been doomed to  destruction. That they carried out, was opposite to a kingdom Divine, to freedom and love kingdom... They sakralizovali the terrestrial force making terrestrial violence over the person, they attached Christian symbols to realities, anything the general with Christianity not having... National messianizm and the theocracy are cancelled not only the Gospel, but also prophets» [41].

The divine ideal has in political bogovlastii the highest value. In comparison with it other vital reference points stand 10 times less, therefore any activity directed on achievement of an ultimate goal can this purpose be justified. The immemorial question on the purpose and means dares in the theocracy practically always unequivocally - in favour of the purpose.

The question on theocratic ideals and ways of their achievement is important. Recently special interest in researchers is caused by a problem of a parity of regulating influence on behaviour of people of legal and religious norms. Also the question on communication between fulfilment of wrongful acts including terrorism certificates, whether also realisation of religious ideals [42] embodiment attempts actually theocratic models of the power promote behaviour deviating norm Can thus rises? Success of the international dialogue of the states and normal functioning of internal political process depends on the decision of the given problem.

With complication of structure of social communications interdependence of people in scales of all world community increases. Human activity in the field of use of the weapon of mass defeat, in the field of nuclear power and arms can have today heavy, sometimes catastrophic, consequences. Ability will correctly dispose of achievements of a technical civilisation demands adequate understanding of complexity of political in modern world political, cultural and economic processes. The practice of the theocracy bending standard forms of religious outlook Is represented, that, is capable to cause not only antireligious, but also illegal (socially dangerous) behaviour as breaks as a whole motivation and tselepolaganie individuals of the behaviour. It is thought, the theocratic idea can cause deformations of sense of justice.

But why despite obvious contradictions and on uncountable set of unsuccessful attempts of realisation of the Kingdom Divine in its terrestrial limits the person in desires and concrete actions again and again aspires to it? Probably, the reasons for it set and all of them are connected with real conditions of a life of people. The theocracy can represent itself as reaction to imperfections of social life, nerazreshennosti national-religious problems of the state. Its occurrence and development can be stimulated with search of the best models of political management and a choice of traditional institutes of the power and is religious-legal mechanisms its maintenance. To the given choice can promote ukorenennost is traditional-religious samples in is standard-valuable system of a society, and also arhetipicheskie to feature of national psychology in which basis theocratic cogitative forms can lay.

About all it and many other things preconditions of occurrence of theocracies and kvaziteokraticheskih modes it will be still told in research. Here it would be desirable to mention and metaphysical aspect of the given problem.

It is thought, at philosophical level the reason of existence of theocracies and theocratic ideas is covered in the person. In the nature of people the ineradicable desire to tower to the maximum condition of perfection and freedom which takes place in described by "sacred books» events of the Kingdom Divine is put in pawn. In the real, terrestrial life interfaced to relations of the power, by domination of one and submission of others, it is shown otdelennost people from each other. The power as the constant attribute of a human society, always generates violence and nesvobodu, depriving thus the person of the true, intrinsic basis seeing in equality, love and freedom of the higher of "a paradise life». The theocracy is original attempt of overcoming of the power and the alienation of the person caused to it. Very precisely expresses an essence of theocratic motives of S.N.Bulgakov when writes: « And, however, the aspiration to power overcoming, - not to anarchy which is promised by anarchy, but to sverhvlastiju is ontologically right and deeply proved: one naked negation of the power is empty and dead, as well as any negation. And sverhvlastie there is not that other, as bogovlastie, the theocracy which and is an ontologic kernel of the power that is why also its latent building. As all in the world, and the power aspires «to outgrow itself»: she grieves for the theocracy »[43]. As attempt of overcoming of compulsory force of patrimonial collective Martin Buber considered the Judaic and Muslim theocracy:« Paradox of any primary and direct theocracy is that she answers "zhestokovyjnosti" (unruliness) of the human person, to aspiration of the person not to depend on other person, but answers it not for the sake of freedom, and for the sake of humility to the Higher force »[44].

And not to find in a cultural heritage of mankind of idea more raised and limiting, than idea of the god, and in politiko-legal history of idea of more impudent, than idea of the theocracy. The person, wishing to have all completeness of freedom and

Happiness today and now, achieves results opposite: in the theocracy as historical practice shows, the extremely rigid, brutal forms of domination and submission were quite often carried out. It is possible to assume: while people so - and all internal contradictions of human nature, will be undertaken also creation attempts on the earth are live, and can and on other spaces of the Universe of the Kingdom Divine.

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A source: Salygin Evgenie Nikolaevich. the THEOCRATIC STATE (TEORETIKO-LEGAL ASPECT). The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the master of laws.

More on topic § 2 Theocracy as an ideal:

  1. § 2 Theocracy as
  2. § 1 Concept of the theocracy
  3. § 1 Concept of the theocracy
  4. § 2. Ideal sources of the information
  5. § 3. Russia and the theocracy
  6. § 3. Russia and the theocracy
  7. Asketika as a moral ideal of a monkhood.
  8. the Ethical ideal sufijskih thinkers.
  10. the CHAPTER the SECOND it is state - the LEGAL CHARACTERISTIC of the THEOCRACY
  12. the CHAPTER the SECOND it is state - the LEGAL CHARACTERISTIC of the THEOCRACY
  13. informational-technological support of quality of autocomponents for maintenance of ideal management