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Conclusions


In spite of the fact that in the early nineties in the USA many understood, that defensive costs, probably, in 10-15 years again will increase (as it and has occurred actually) very few people doubted necessity of transformation of the defensive industry.
The analysis of the conducted reorganisation has allowed to draw following conclusions. During re-structuring of oboronno-industrial base any one and only effective strategy therefore the defensive industry of the USA today the same as and earlier, represents diverse base did not dominate. In the industry as large, average successfully co-exist and small oboronno - the specialising corporations working in narrow technological niches, and defensive divisions is wide diversifitsirovannyh conglomerates. Though in the early nineties practically all defensive enterprises have faced aggravation of the financial indexations, some data show, that in naluchshem position there were the corporations which have taken steps on diversifikatsii and partial conversion. For many of them new engines of growth of a steel system integration, electronics and service before the delivered systems. During consolidation a number of corporate giants have considerably expanded a spectrum of systems made by them. Thanks to it today in all key sectors of defensive production two strong players compete at least. Also it is necessary to notice, that consolidation forms were often defined by short-term expectations of the financial market. It calls into question degree of rationality of re-structuring of branch as consolidation has made negative impact on financial health VPK, especially in second half 1990th Re-structuring and consolidation of the defensive industry, possibly, will occur and further, however at lower levels and to smaller intensity. Unlike the accepted opinion, as a result of consolidation VPK on-line operated vertically-integrated structures have not been created, is faster VPK have started to develop difficult network forms of the organisation of business, forming interfirm ascending, descending and horizontal networks. Leaders VPK under the pressure of the forces which have influenced process of formation of interfirm networks, consolidated platforms and key the competence, and also began to involve more external firms in fulfilment of industrial works by means of creation of networks of subcontractors. As a whole, successful partial conversion VPK has shown, that on a way of an exit of the defensive enterprises on the civil markets there are serious, but surmountable obstacles. Military specialisation puts before the defensive companies barriers at an exit on the civil markets (first of all it is distinct from civil a composition of costs and absence of experience of civil marketing), but also gives to the competence, concerning management of projects and industrial technologies. It is obvious, that the accent on merges and consolidation has slowed down carrying over of defensive technologies and other assets to civil sector. In 1990th VPK the USA have considerably strengthened the position in world market ViVt. Besides presence reduction by it Russia there is a number of other important reasons of increasing domination of the USA: (1) purchasing arms in the USA, exporters receive warranties of strategic political and military support of the USA; (2) VPK the USA can offer a wide choice of the engineering equipped with the most complicated weapon and electronics and successfully tested during war in Persian gulf and in a number of other local wars; (3) today the USA offer new high quality arms is more often; (4) VPK the USA successfully achieve some new kinds of a financial backing. Moreover, considering obvious technological lead of the USA, demand for the American military engineering and service will grow in process of distribution ViVT, basing on information technologies.
• Globalization of the international arms markets has led to development of close mutual relations between VPK the different countries. Thus leaders VPK remain especially national corporations, and the basic consolidation occurs at level of manufacturers of subsystems and accessories. In 1933 in the USA the law has been passed Purchase American which still acts and according to which all systems of arms purchased MO, should be made within the USA. However in this law subcontractors and suppliers of accessories especially are not mentioned, therefore on them law action does not extend, that can create difficulties for policy MO the USA. The Japanese writer - novelist Shintaro Ishihara in the co-authorship with businessman Akio Morita has written the book, Japan which can tell"no"[98, with. 4]. In it Ishihara has declared, that Japan could deliver during half a year the USA on knees, simply having given up to them in delivery of semiconductors. The probability of such succession of events has been demonstrated, when the ministry of international trade and the industry of Japan has not granted the USA the newest technologies in the field of ceramics by production of a cruise missile "Tomahawk". On the other hand, the USA always, as well as many other things the countries, depended on support of foreign countries. In such areas, as the basic raw materials (for example the titan for planes), this problem will exist irrespective of the policy which is conducted by administration of the USA.
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A source: BOLSHAKOV Zahar Anatolevich. the Basic tendencies of development of military-industrial corporations of the USA in 1990th years / the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. - Moscow: the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of economic and the international relations. - 179 with.. 2002

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  1. CONCLUSIONS ON CHAPTER 1
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  20. 4.4 Short conclusions