the concept Contents “population social protection” and necessity of social protection for modern market economy

Population social protection - new enough concept which has appeared in the domestic economic literature rather recently, with the beginning of transition of Russia from a planned economy to a market economy.
The analysis of a category of social protection allows to draw a conclusion, that, first, the understanding of social protection in Russia and abroad often has the politized character and depends on a concrete social and economic situation. Secondly, despite social protection development in modern Russia, it is not accepted yet by public consciousness as independent social institute. For this reason till now the contents of concept "social protection" has not received definitive definition. It is shown in instability and discrepancy of approaches to the decision of this question in the domestic literature.
As a social protection subject it is necessary to consider first of all social risks. By means of system of the various measures entering into system of social protection the state operates social risks for the purpose of damage indemnification, promotes decrease or the prevention of their effect on process of the expanded reproduction of the population.
Thus, population social protection is a control system of social risks for the purpose of indemnification of a damage, decrease or the prevention of their effect on process of the expanded reproduction of the population. As the social and economic category social protection represents relations on redistribution of the national income with the purposes of maintenance of the established social standards of a life for each person in the conditions of action of social risks.
The majority of systems of social protection is included by following basic components: Pension insurance (on an old age, physical inability, losses of the supporter); Medical insurance; Accident insurance on production; Insurance for unemployment.
In the foreign and domestic research literature such systems are designated as social insurance system. However, according to the author, this name is represented ambiguous as not all parts of systems of social protection are based on a social insurance principle. To social protection system along with the elements resulted above the social help and social transfer deeds within the limits of the housing, educational and family policy belong also. In real practice there are all transferred kinds of social protection of the population, however the defining form from them in the conditions of market economy is obligatory social insurance.
Necessity of the state social protection is stipulated by a number of factors. First, it is feature of the organisation of modern market economy in which significant number of its members are hired workers. Therefore unlike doindustrialnoj agrarian economy time or long disablement in organised on the basis of a market division of labour and professional specialisation company can lead to loss by workers of sources of existence. Secondly, the impossibility of a modern family because of a small number of its members to serve as informal institute of protection against social risks. Thirdly, impossibility of satisfactory social support from church, municipal, public or charitable the organisations. Certainly, existence of such institutes acting at local level, it is possible to consider as additional, but not a social protection principal view. In - the fourth, decrease in social risks by voluntary personal insurance is impossible for the majority of citizens as such insurance provides high enough insurance instalments. Unlike voluntary personal, obligatory (state) social insurance covers the majority of the population with different level of incomes. Fifthly, in the conditions of modern economy insurance of the risks not always covered by private programs, for example such, as unemployment and inflation is extremely important. For this reason the state social programs can become unique, capable to resist to cyclic fluctuations. The last factor stipulating necessity of the state social protection, that absence of obligatory self-insurance of risks leads to the economic costs inevitably arising in case of existence of not insured persons to which the company is compelled to grant the social help at insured accident approach is.
Principles of social protection of the population
National systems of social protection were generated with allowance for specificity of economic, social and cultural development of the countries. However, despite distinctions in ways of development and features of the organisation, quality and volume of services, and also the financing methods, all systems of social protection function on the basis of uniform principles (Drawing 1).
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A source: Antropov V.V.. ECONOMIC MODELS of SOCIAL PROTECTION of the POPULATION In EU STATES / the Dissertation. 2007
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