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the International military-economic communications


In the early nineties many VPK have strengthened attention to the foreign markets which allowed to them fast possibility to compensate reduction of purchases MO. Often to find possibility of foreign customers defined well-being of the enterprises, and on the contrary.
For example, to the middle of 2001 to 7 thousand persons from 20 thousand employees of factory "Boeing" in Saint Louis have lost the jobs, since. The government of Greece has made decision not to buy a lot of fighters F-15 in cost 3,5 bln. dollars
Thus, VPK began to give bolshee significance to foreign sales, considerably having increased an export share in the general military business (see table 6). Besides, VPK began to search for possibilities for an establishment of long-term relations with buyers and even agreed smaller return under some contracts in exchange for possibility to serve and modernise sold systems or to receive the future orders. As it was marked in chapter 1, VPK support of administration of the USA could achieve, noticing, that export will potentially lower cost price ViVT.

Table 6. An export share in

Total amount of military sales

Conducting VPK


1989-1991 (%)

1996-1998 (%)

"Lokhid Martin"

8

24

"Boeing"

16

25

"Rejteon"

8

11

Source: 16, with. 334.

Now the large part of export ViVT goes on channels of program MO «Foreign military sales». Thus VPK formally deliver arms MO, and it already sells their countries-importers on an intergovernmental basis, keeping itself on the average 3 % of cost of the bargain as commissions. The basic dignity of such bargains for importers is their completeness (MO usually sells the whole "packages" of arms including platforms, the weapon and an ammunition to them, spare parts, auxiliaries and services), stability (since the exporter formally is itself MO the USA), and also, that is especially important, favourable financial arrangements of bargains, first of all wide crediting of their significant part on beneficial terms. At the same time, the strengthened state control of such bargains does their less operative and, as a rule, imposes on the country-addressee a number of political obligations which for it far are not always desirable. In 1990th MO, besides, delivered foreign countries a significant amount of redundant military engineering. So, for example, with 1990 on 1995 MO has carried out similar deliveries for the sum about 7 bln. dollars To 50 % of deliveries of redundant arms were gratuitous. Thus, MO it has appeared competitor VPK. Under the pressure of the industry in 1993 the congress of the USA has made the legislative amendment according to which the US president should take into consideration influence of transfer deeds of redundant arms on national technological and industrial base that has a little lowered volume of foreign deliveries redundant ViVT.
The second channel of military export are «direct commercial sales» to the foreign governments, carried out directly VPK. The role of the state bodies thus is theoretically reduced only to issue of military-export licences. However in practice the administration of the USA here again plays an important role since besides approval of commercial export bargains it also various formal and informal ways defines the basic geographical directions of similar sales and enters some nomenclature restrictions.
The relative volume of "direct commercial deliveries» for the last 10 years has considerably decreased. If in the late seventies they made less than 20 % of volume of export bargains, in the mid-eighties - about 30 % right at the beginning 1990th this indicator has reached 60 %, and by the end 1990 has again decreased to 20 %. Such change in relative volume of commercial sales of arms speaks increase in deliveries ViVT in the countries of South East Asia and the Near East which is passing in basic through MO, and also increase of an overall performance of defensive department of the USA, reflecting the increased understanding of economic significance of export ViVT.
In real terms export of the USA by 1999 has decreased for 20 % in comparison with peak of 1987 whereas the share of the USA in world export of the weapon has increased from 32 % to 50 % that has occurred against the decreasing volume of world market ViVt in relation to the middle of 1980th Within a decade 1985-1995 real volume of international trade in the weapon annually decreased on the average on 11 % (schedule 11 see).

Schedule 11. World trade ViVT and export ViVT from the USA

Source: It is made on 16, in mln. dollars of the USA, in real terms 1990
As to buyers in 1990th on a share of Middle East 40 % of export of the USA were necessary. East Asia, including China and Japan, became the second large regional market of arms (20 %), partly for military reasons, but also because of fast economic growth. The economic crisis of 1997 has led to some reductions of volume of purchases in East Asia. Other large consumer of military export of the USA were countries of Western Europe (15 %) and Latin America (10 %).
There are distinctions in a regional direction between deliveries under programs «Foreign military sales» and «Direct commercial sales». Unlike the first which almost on 50 % go to developing countries of the Near East and Persian gulf, commercial deliveries ViVT more, than on 70 % are directed to the states of the Western Europe and the Pacific ring that is connected with rather smaller share of systems on these sales and bolshej a share of various knots, subsystems and the components consumed by a war industry of the developed countries-importers.
There is a number of the important reasons of increasing domination of the USA on
The world market of arms. First, sharp reduction of presence by it Russia. Secondly, purchasing arms in the USA, exporters receive warranties of strategic political and military support. Cooperation with the USA many countries, for example Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, is dictated by their general economic ties and aspiration to get political and military support of the USA in case of the regional conflict. Thirdly, VPK the USA can offer a wide choice of the engineering equipped with the most complicated weapon and electronics and successfully tested during war in Persian gulf and in a number of other local wars. Really, after 1991 the volume of orders at the American companies has increased. Apparently, considering obvious technological lead of the USA, demand for the American military engineering and service will grow, since in the future the military systems basing on information technologies [71, с.267] will extend more and more. Fourthly, today the USA offer new high quality arms is more often. Politicians use export not to close a line for production of difficult systems of the arms which volume of purchases MO has decreased. In other cases of a policy allow to sell new arms abroad to lower cost of purchases for VS the USA. However, despite increase in export offers of the newest ViVT, the USA usually export the planes equipped with low-power engines and reduced electronic possibilities for counteractions. As an example the export variant of fighter F-16 differing from its variant for internal use serves. Fifthly, VPK the USA successfully achieve some new kinds of a financial backing. About 1970th of the USA use practice of export financing of arms through the Program of foreign military financing (English Foreign Military Financing Program), carried out MO. The last years the financing volume under this program makes annually the little more than 3 bln. dollars the Financial backing also passes in the area of Eximbank - bargains on export of goods of double appointment (multi-purpose helicopters, the radar equipment, some kinds of courts of admiralty and civil aeroplanes), and also through started by the Pentagon in 1996 the new Program of warranties under credits in sphere of export ViVT (English Defense Export Loan Guarantee Programm). Moreover, as it has already been shown in paragraph 2.1, financing of production, including to that which goes for export to the last years grant also VPK.
As a whole, demand in the world on ViVT has fallen much more fast, than ability them has decreased to make. The quantity of the countries, capable to make the weapon besides, grows. As a result there is a classical market condition favourable to the buyer at which the purchasing countries have possibility to achieve from suppliers of significant concessions [71, with. 251]. In such situation, giving gradually to the companies from the developed countries the markets of smaller and simple arms, VPK the USA more and more focus the efforts to working out and production of the difficult systems including advanced achievements of military-technical thought - at first for internal, and then and for a foreign market.
The increased ability to make ViVT is based by firms of other countries partly on compensation transactions which acquire the increasing significance in export ViVT. Thus there is an expansion of production of a part of exported items of the country-manufacturer in territory of the country - of the buyer. As a matter of fact, indemnifications remind barter, reducing economic efficiency of international trade.
From the very beginning of indemnification there were closely related politicians with wider purposes of military export and national security. There is a difficult interdependence between compensatory and other tendencies in a war industry of the USA, especially, as will be shown more low, in questions of the international consolidation.
Co-production agreements of the period seldom included 1947-1980 joint working out and consequently have introduced the small investment in carrying over of skills of the system integration necessary for the foreign companies for independent working out and production ViVT. Nevertheless, the industry of such countries as the Great Britain, France, Japan and the Western Germany, has saved the big scientific and technological possibilities - the Second World War has destroyed only capacities. Therefore both in the Western Europe, and in Japan co-production agreements have introduced a substantial contribution to growth of production potentialities. Interest in use technical and the production potentialities revived by means of co-production agreements, discontent with quality and quantity of the technologies transferred by means of these agreements, - all it has resulted the companies and the governments of the European countries and Japan to that in 1970 and 1980th They have required for themselves bolshej a role in joint working out and designing of accessories and systems.
Other countries require indemnifications that with their help to save the buying power for import of larger arms. In some cases of indemnification those sektory are used to support economy which have fallen into decay as a result of the government decision to import system of arms, instead of to make them independently. However in many countries the technological base is not enough advanced to apply many direct indemnifications. These countries prefer to search for the markets for not defensive production or to receive the technologies more suitable to them (untied indemnifications).
In 1970 and 1980th of politician MO considered compensation transactions as a question which should be supervised VPK under condition of approval by administration of all export licences in the field of the major technologies. This hands-off policy has been changed in 1990 Bush - by administration of the senior, declared, that «some indemnifications on military export were economically inefficient and destroyed the market» [144, with. 23]. The new policy of administration of Bush-senior has granted the state bodies the right to check the compensation agreements prepared VPK.
Despite growing political importance of indemnifications given about their economic significance very few. Data Of is administrative-budgetary management of the USA about indemnifications for 1980-1987 are presented in table 16. More last data about indemnifications, also included in table 7, have been published in 2001 by the Ministry of Trade of the USA.
On the basis of the presented data it is possible to draw following conclusions concerning application of compensatory schemes.
• Comparison of data shows absence of any essential tendencies to increase of a share of indemnifications in military export of the USA: the insignificant increase in this share from 57,2 % of military export to 1980-1987 to 59,6 % - in 1993-1998 is marked

Table 7. Export ViVT from the USA and compensation transactions (1980-1998)

Year

Экспорт1, the mln. dollars in flew. The prices

Compensation transactions, mln. dollars in flew. The prices

Share of compensation transactions in export, %

1980

6 541

3 611

55,2

1981

2 507

2 195

87,6

1982

2 594

1 060

40,9

1983

8 703

4 471

51,4

1984

5 523

2 280

41,3

1985

3 860

2 434

63,0

1986

2 209

1 047

47,4

1987

3 037

2 987

98,3

1993

13 945

4 794

34,4

1994

4 792

2 049

42,8

1995

7 401

6 000

81,0

1996

3 010

2 270

76,0

1997

5 840

3 850

65,9

1998

3 100

1 800

57,9

Source: It is made on 144; 128.

• significance of indirect indemnifications which, by definition, influence export and employment outside of defensive sector Has increased. By data
Data on total export and volume of compensation transactions are granted by the Ministry of Trade of the USA, but the data collection methodology is not known, and also it is available distinctions with data SIPRI. It is impossible to carry out the exact analysis of a parity of compensation transactions and export within the limits of programs «Foreign military deliveries» and «Direct commercial deliveries». However at all distinction of applied methods and received results the leading analytical centres grant similar qualitative pictures and consequently the given research gives the general submission about volume and dynamics of compensation transactions. In more details about distinctions in methodology of drawing up of data about export see [7].
Is administrative-budgetary management of the USA, in 1980-1987 on a share of direct indemnifications 37 %, and indirect - 41 % of all compensation agreements were necessary. According to the Ministry of Trade of the USA, in 1993-1998 on a share of direct indemnifications it was necessary 31 %, and indirect - 62 % of all compensation agreements.
• Separate bargains make the big impact on results of researches as a whole. By estimations of the Ministry of Trade of the USA, the exception of two large bargains on sales of arms from data about indemnifications for 1993 would lead to change of a share of military export of the USA, falling indemnification this year, from 34,4 % to 69 %.
The large part of compensation agreements VPK the USA is necessary not on the countries of "the third world», and to the Western Europe - more than 80 % of a total cost of all concluded bargains such. The West European states achieved the highest degree of cover of the expenses - more than 100 % whereas the countries of South East Asia and the Near East on the average required 30 % of cover of expenses [III]. Thus, the West European companies skilfully use productions ties with firms of the USA for strengthening of the technological base and partly level significant rupture in expenses for military researches and development which is available between Europe and the USA.
At fulfilment of the international contracts on delivery of the weapon including a compensatory element, advantage, as a rule, receive the largest American VPK. Usually it is easier to these corporations to carry out programs under indemnifications, especially if it concerns civil sphere of economy; many of them already do business in the country - the counterpart. On the other hand, restrained there are interests of numerous American subcontractors of the second and third levels, since. Often their work is transmitted to the country-counterpart companies. According to the estimations resulted in the report of the Main kontrolno-finance administration of the USA, in 1993-1996 about 75 % of all activity VPK the USA connected with carrying out of the obligations under indemnifications, went at level of subcontractors [138, with. 32].
To lower negative economic benefit, VPK the USA often carry out compensation transactions through the foreign branches considered in many countries as "national" contractors. Through them VPK the USA develop the further investment expansion, buying up the local defensive companies and expanding available capacities. Joint ventures are sometimes used.
Thus, the defensive industry of the USA, as well as all other business, is a part of more and more interdependent global economy. The exit on a world scene in arms production becomes more and more attractive strategy for maintenance of a survival of the defensive industry. Globalisation of production of arms here is understood as a withdrawal from traditional models of one-national production of arms and transition to "internationalised" workings out, production and arms sales. It is known, that certain kinds of the international cooperation in arms sphere, such as trade and licence production, there are decades, if not centuries. However from the beginning of 1990th rates and scope of world cooperation in arms sphere have promptly increased. Because of recession of defensive financing proceeding all over the world and promptly growing cost of research and development there was a necessity to divide financial costs and the investments required for working out the new technologies necessary to all. The international partnership become more and more preferable, even necessary. The USA start to consider more seriously, first of all, mutual relations with the European countries of NATO from the point of view of the consolidation offering to possibility for new transatlantic partnership. Therefore, probably, following phase of reorganisation of the defensive industry will be carried out according to transatlantic model of creation of the uniform capacious market of military purchases in NATO that will create base for transatlantic consolidation.
From the end of 1970th the tendency to advancement of the international cooperation to the production cycle beginning, i.e. to workings out (schedule 12 see) was distinctly observed. Licence production was supplemented even more often with various programs of co-production, leaders to incorporated production of the general systems of arms even if working out of these arms occurred only in one country. This tendency was reflected in growing preference of the multinational commands working over military researches and development, and in a withdrawal from agreements on licensing.
Schedule 12. The international defensive cooperation among the developed capitalist countries in 1961-1995
140
120
Sovmestn ye programs on working out and production Licence production
To it
And
And
About
And
With
About
I
n
About
CD
Сґ
TO
TS
About
100
80
60
40

20
0

61-65
66-70
76-80
81-85
86-90
91-95
71-75

Years
Source: 40, with. 312.
Development of joint international programs has led to that the American and European companies establish or increase the presence at other areas of the market. According to company "КПМЖ" research [134, with. 41], the American companies in 1999 invested 154 bln. dollars in merges and acquisitions out of the USA (in comparison with 22 bln. dollars in 1990). Corporations "Boeing", «Dzheneral Dajnemiks», "Lokhid Martin", "Rejteon" and «Nortrop Grumman» have affiliated companies in the Great Britain. «Dzheneral Dajnemiks» also has affiliated companies in
Italy also possesses company "Стаер" share in Austria, and "Boeing" possesses 35 % of shares of the company «aero Water courses» (republic Czechia). The European companies enter larger American defensive market by acquisition of the American companies.
According to the same research, the investment into transboundary merges and acquisitions in the USA have increased about 54 bln. dollars in 1990 to 293 bln. dollars in 1999 For example, in 1990th the English corporation «BAE Sistems» has achieved significant presence in the market of the USA thanks to a series of merges and acquisitions, having redeemed at "Lokhid Martin" division «kontrol Sistems» for 510 mln. dollars and division «Aerospace elektroniks Sistems» for 1,67 bln. dollars In 2000 26 largest European defensive companies possessed 197 American affiliated companies delivering ViVT for MO the USA [143, with. 7]. It is important to notice, that the foreign suppliers ViVT, wishing to work with MO the USA, face a number of requests, the effect from which is in many respects similar to effect from indemnifications. As a rule, a request «purchase American» it is included by the congress of the USA in appropriations for purchases of the basic systems of arms that interferes with sharing of foreign applicants in competition on reception of contracts within the limits of such programs. All purchases by the American military men of "large" ready systems of arms, such as plane "Харриер", radio system "Птармиган" or even a pistol "Beretta", contained an obligatory request that manufacturing of systems was carried out on North American capacities, is frequent in the American companies.
However, despite all tendencies of the international consolidation, the large defensive companies of the world remain exclusively national. Everything, as to these companies: the top management, factories, even the majority of shareholders, - has a national origin. In 1999 from 127-thousand staff "Rejteon" only 10 thousand persons worked out of the USA; from 190 thousand persons of staff "Lokhid Martin" of all 6 thousand work abroad. Among the largest VPK the USA the company «TRV Air Systems» is the unique company really working in several countries of Europe.
Other potential obstacle in a way of transnational consolidation is consolidation in Europe, that also puts the American defensive companies in is strategic unprofitable position [99, with. 61]. If earlier many European companies, not having found the European partners, addressed to the American companies today the situation was changed. High activity in sphere of the European consolidation in 1999 has led to a competitiveness of the American and European corporations dominating in the corresponding geographical markets and vigorously struggling for international distributions in the markets of developing countries. Right at the end 1990th superconcern «BAE Sistems» (the former company «British the Aerospace») the first among the European companies has taken equal position with leaders VPK the USA, having achieved a turn-over over 20 bln. dollars at the expense of a number of consecutive absorption. In 2000 The companies «aerospasjal Matra SA» (France), «DASA the Aerospace» (Germany) and «Konstruksones aeronautikas SA» (Spain) have united in the European space and defensive concern (EADS - from English European Aeronautic Defence amp; Space Co.). EADS has the revenue about 33 bln. dollars In aggregate on a share of companies EADS and «BAE Sistems» 75 % of the European defensive and aerospace head contracts are necessary almost. These new companies already compete to cores VPK the USA in a sales volume and width of a spectrum of offers of production. According to experts, the European governments at the decision of the major questions of purchases more and more are guided on political, instead of by economic priorities [133, with. 29]. As examples it is possible to result: a choice the Great Britain of rockets "Meteor" of a class "air-air" or attempts to develop and make European voennotransportnyj the plane.
Despite obvious preservation of a nationality of the largest defensive enterprises, some accessories (especially not requiring high technologies) are successfully made in the countries which have recently taken a way of industrialisation, and are directed for final assemblage to the developed countries. Besides, suppliers of subsystems and components from the USA and Europe already sell production to military men on both parties of Atlantic. The American military planes, for example, are equipped by English projective onboard indicators, and the American precisely directed bombs can contain the Japanese computer microcircuits and ceramic cases. Moreover, the foreign governments concern reception by foreigners of the control over national production of the basic types of complete combat material, than to introduction of the foreign companies in the local industry making components, subsystems and auxiliaries [1, с.124] much more negatively.
Thus, at preservation of a general tendency of "nationality" among the largest defensive enterprises there is an international consolidation at lower levels of cooperation (see the scheme 2).
Thus the largest VPK the USA often prefer consolidations flexible strategic alliances since it allows the companies in each market on which they would like to compete, choose new partners and to expand possibilities of the company without formation of constant mutual relations, and also to get access to the unique technologies, necessary to fulfil a request of military men [143, with. 18]. VPK the USA are already connected with the European and Asian companies an indirect route - by means of licence production, joint workings out, fulfilment of works under subcontracts, joint ventures and a minor shareholding. For example, "Lokhid Martin" has united with the English companies «BAE Sistems», "DzhEs-Markoni", "Rolls-Royce" and "Messer-Douti" (the joint English-French enterprise) for construction of plane JSF for MO the USA, and also for Naval Forces of the Great Britain. The Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Canada, Turkey and Italy already declared the interest in sharing in the program in quality of "junior partners».


In long-term prospect, probably, the program of creation of fighter JSF will define a kind of the international cooperation. However in the course of globalisation of production of arms, as shown during fulfilment of program JSF, that from the end of 1980th is faster the industry is the most important, than the state, has begun intensive re-structuring of the international industrial base, in particular by creation of new transnational interfirm communications which form a basis for the future military researches and development and production [40, with. 322]. Whereas more traditional special cooperation in sphere of the arms, operated the government, can grant significant benefits from the point of view of reduction of costs, divisions of research and development and the economy caused by growth of scales of production, it has also the defects. Intergovernmental negotiations can lead to an inefficiency because of time lags and administrative expenses. Work is often distributed depending on the capital contribution, instead of with allowance for efficiency and competitive advantage. Cooperation is connected with the big operational costs because of repetition of structures of management and decision-making processes. Rezultirujushchy effect are delay, the over-expenditure of means and the high cost price. As a result the defensive companies (with the consent of the government) agree about the international production of the weapon within the limits of more and more difficult, integrated, constant transboundary industrial partnership. These new industrial agreements sharply change the form and structure of the international production of arms.
Unconditionally, the technological exchange between American VPK and the defensive companies of other developed capitalist countries still is far from were to the full bilateral [1, with. 82]. To 1995 of the USA exported ViVT more, than on 17 bln. dollars, and imported - less than on 2 bln. dollars, and, as a rule, it there were subsystems and accessories. The enormous American budget of research and development,
Large-scale own researches and development of giants of the American defensive industry, huge scientific and technical reserve already created by them practically in all areas of modern military technology - hardly all it will allow foreign partners-competitors to be made even in the foreseeable future with American VPK on a technological level and price competitiveness of military production. American VPK carry out large subdeliveries of key components and subsystems not only for national military-technical programs of the developed capitalist countries, but for the major "European" projects. For example, on the newest Swedish fighter "Grippen" of firm "Saab" rockets and other important components are established the American engine. Quite often American subcontractors also play a role of the integrator of electronic subsystems, that at times puts them on importance and amount of works ahead of the local head contractor. Thanks to enormous scientific and technical potential and huge know-how VPK the USA even more often export not only the knots and components, but also services in installation and integration of all electronic subsystems on the various platforms made for other states by the local companies and firms of the third countries. As a result role VPK the USA in a military production raises much more, than their significance in the world market as suppliers of components and subsystems. Such situation, for example, is traced in the project «Marine start» of corporation "Boeing". As a result at the expense of foreign military-industrial operations VPK the USA are covered requirements of foreign defensive departments and firms for the major kinds and subspecies of military production and the technologies which are that technical basis on which there is a modernisation of fighting possibilities of armed forces of other countries. It allows the USA to render strong, and at times and decisive influence on rates and character voennotehnicheskogo developments of the friendly states.
Possibly, after a while, leaders of the world defensive industry will have less competitors and will be less dependent, than today, from any separate market. Nevertheless, essential reduction of number of large manufacturers of arms and their growing attention to the international markets will change balance of the power in the weapon markets: partially the power will pass from the government to private corporations. Any government cannot independently develop the arms aimed at satisfaction of special needs of safety, have the doubtless technological superiority or supervise distribution of technologies outside of borders of the state. Planners MO at drawing up of the budget necessary for creation of fighter JSF, already tried to define, what countries could require changes in the project. The government of the Great Britain which have allocated more 200 mln. dollars For the payment of expenses on working out JSF, had a full voice at a choice between the prototypes presented by "Boeing" and «Lokhid Martinym». Thus, it was the first precedent when the foreign country participated in a choice of strategic system which will be delivered on arms VS the USA. On the other hand, manufacturers of the weapon will appear in a situation when on a share of one country, let even their own, the smaller share of their sales will have, than in the past. Undoubtedly, MO is till now the unique large consumer of production of the American companies though the American companies export more production, than fifteen years ago: 19 % of total amount of made production in 1999 and 6 % - in 1985 However if nevertheless the scale of strengthening of transatlantic communications at least is partly similar to scale of merges of 1990th In the USA consortia of small quantity of the international corporations can soon deliver production to tens large countries - of customers including the USA.
Unlike VPK the USA, for the Russian defensive enterprises export ViVT became a main source of the income in 1990th. Sharp devaluation of rouble in August, 1998 promoted growth of competitiveness of the Russian weapon in the international market. Obviously, as further the Russian military-industrial policy will give a priority to export ViVT and for reception of incomes for investments into the industry, and for maintenance and development of technical and technological potential of the industry. However it is possible to expect also, that in 5-6 years export ViVT from Russia will decrease. On the one hand, today Russia has small volumes of export of the weapon in those countries which agree to liquidate debts of Russia deliveries of our arms. Moreover, the significant part of this export goes to China and India - the countries which aspire to develop the industrial base and to lower dependence on import. On the other hand, practical absence of financing of research and development new ViVT will lead to that Russian ViVT become noncompetitive when the USA and countries of Western Europe will introduce the systems of following generation to the market.
Despite obvious preconditions of decrease in Russian export ViVT, there are mechanisms of increase of appeal of work with the Russian companies at organizational level. Today many Russian enterprises OPK with their astable position and straits do not look as reliable partners for long-term cooperation. Moreover, often major factor at a choice of partners considers ability of exporters to carry out the compensatory programs assuming counter obligations of the exporter under investments into civil sector of economy of the importer. The Russian manufacturers ViVT considerably concede in these conditions to the American and West European companies. The real exit consists in increase of organizational possibilities (service, work with commercial firms under indemnifications etc.) And acceptance of the western standards of a corporate governance (through it there have passed the leading Russian petroleum companies, aspiring to receive the western financing).
The major element of development of the Russian defensive industry is failure of one-national model of working out and production ViVT. Today Russia concedes western the companies in a number of technological spheres, especially in electronics and consequently at the first level of the international cooperation export variants should consider this backlog as much as possible. For example, in spite of the fact that Israeli-Russian helicopter Ka-50-2 has lost in the Turkish tender, this example has shown firm "Kamov" possibilities in system integration and a way of strengthening of appeal of system by means of the international economic ties. Undoubtedly, deeper international cooperation - joint international system engineering is even more important. The first examples are Russian-Indian rocket PJ-10 and Russian-Indian transport aeroplane Ил-214/МТА.
It is necessary to tell separately about the Russian manufacturers of subsystems and completing - their integration into the world defensive and aerospace industry in general is limited today by nothing. Experience of the enterprises of group "Каскол", NPO "Energomash", and of some other enterprises shows the companies «Rybinsk motors», that at preservation of scientific and technical potential and availability of an accurate policy of a management the western corporations willingly go on long-term cooperation with the Russian manufacturers of subsystems and accessories.
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A source: BOLSHAKOV Zahar Anatolevich. the Basic tendencies of development of military-industrial corporations of the USA in 1990th years / the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. - Moscow: the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of economic and the international relations. - 179 with.. 2002

More on topic the International military-economic communications:

  1. §1 variety of mechanisms of the permission of the international economic disputes within the limits of international economic the organisations
  2. the Role of the international organisations in sphere of international legal regulation of a turn of military goods
  3. a place and a role of international legal regulation of a turn of military goods in international law system
  4. Chapter 3. Mechanisms of the permission of the international economic disputes within the limits of the international economic organisations.
  5. BOLSHAKOV Zahar Anatolevich. the Basic tendencies of development of military-industrial corporations of the USA in 1990th years / the Dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of a Cand.Econ.Sci. - Moscow: the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of economic and the international relations. - 179 with., 2002
  6. Changes in international military-political conditions
  7. Shifts in the military-economic policy of the USA
  8. Integration of high school into the social and economic environment of region through system of public communications
  9. §2. Execution of the international contract. Structure of contractual communications and kinds of the documents which are making out execution of the international contract of purchase and sale
  10. §2 Activity of the international economic organisations on creation of international legal norms.
  11. the International legal estimation of activity of the private military and security companies
  12. § 1. A policy of "military communism» and se influence on economic relations