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§1. Crisis of intercommunal interaction (1963) and its consequences

Realisation of the constitution of Cyprus in practice has faced at once serious problems. Owing to features of system of the government on island its functioning depended on real readiness of representatives of both communities for constructive cooperation for the sake of an embodiment of positions of the organic law.
In practice the intercommunal climate was defined by a mutual distrust of Cypriotes, and the constitution was perceived by them almost exclusively as the imposing tool each other egoistical интересов.130 Atmosphere was heavy and because on supervising posts in the new state yesterday's insurgents from the secret extremist organisations were put forward, psychology and which purposes remained former. In the first year of independence of the new state of difficulty have arisen with performance of the parities provided by the constitution for replacement by representatives of communities of posts in machinery of state, police and armed forces. Distribution 70:30 on civil public service seemed to the Greeks-Cypriotes occupying in it at the moment of reception with Cyprus independence the overwhelming majority of posts, unfair, and they in every possible way tightened its realisation under the pretext of absence in a Turkish community of enough of the formed and prepared shots. Partly it was true: illiteracy in the turko-Cyprian community made 23,6 %, and meticulous observance of the proportion put in pawn in the constitution from the practical point of view was exigeant. At the same time in a percentage parity quantity of Turks-Cypriotes with higher education (more than 24 %) 131 exceeded the general share of a Turkish community as a part of the island population, and persevering evasion of Greeks-Cypriotes from performance of position of the constitution concerning ethnic structure of the state bodies looked as purposeful aspiration to usurp the power. Specially created Commission on civil service as a part of 7 Greeks - and 3 Turks-Cypriotes was engaged in distribution of corresponding posts. Mutual suspicions of representatives of communities led to that the mechanism of acceptance by the commission of decisions on appointment to this or that post (the simple majority including voices at least of two Turks-Cypriotes) constantly failure gave. The Supreme Constitutional court called to resolve a similar sort of the contradiction, did not cope with a huge stream of references; its work in turn also has been complicated by contradictions on ethnic soil between judges. Besides the problems similar to replacement of civil posts, the situation in power structures became complicated some specific features. The principle of "the double power» and intercommunal balance provided, as here heads of departments and their assistants were appointed the joint decision, the president and the vice-president from different communities. It was thus provided, that the divisions placed in areas of overwhelming numerical prevalence of one of communities, will be, accordingly, almost for hundred percent monoetnichny. As to army, 132 that the Turks-Cypriotes heading at that time the Ministry of Defence, acted exclusively for monoethnic structure of divisions. In their opinion, religious, linguistic and traditional differences did impossible creation completely homogeneous armed forces as that was demanded by Greeks-Cypriotes.
When the government the decision on creation of uniform army at all levels of parts and divisions was accepted, turko-Cyprian vice-president F.Kjuchuk has taken advantage of the veto (on October, 20th, 1961). Any of the parties did not make concessions, and creation of the Cyprian armed forces has appeared impossible. It, however, was on a hand to nationalists of all colours: filling power vacuum, they have declared again themselves, having adjusted a secret transfer to Cyprus of the weapon and insurgents from «the related countries». At the same time absence of regular army minimised influence of the turko-Cyprian Minister of Defence - an important result for Greeks-Cypriotes in intercommunal opposition for influence on government levers. Activization degree in 1962-63 in both communities of the nationalist semimilitary organisations, enjoying secret support of officials of island and officers developed on Cyprus under agreements 1959 of the Greek and Turkish contingents became an eloquent indicator of an explosive climate of interethnic interaction on Cyprus. So, the largest among Greeks-Cypriotes (about 5 thousand insurgents) was the National Organization of Cyprus ("Organization") led by the Minister of Internal Affairs P.Georkadzisom. Under some data, in its management the chairman of the Greek-Cyprian legislative chamber G.Kliridis and the minister of work T.Papadopulos.133 entered other groups (led by V.Lissaridisom, N.Sampsonom, etc.) Operated also . As researchers specify, Makarios not only knew about existence of these organisations, but also supported their activity, believing its potentially important lever of pressure upon Turks-Cypriotes. There are data, that at its participation for Cyprus the plan of power change of the status quo has been developed for realisation of "free self-determination» (the plan "Akritas" - on P.Georkadzisa's pseudonym).134 At the same time in the turko-Cyprian community some thousand insurgents were totaled by organisation TMT created still in 50th for struggle with ЭОКА.135Анализ of accessible documentary certificates on its activity shows, that purposes TMT was preparation of section of island ("taksim"), called to relieve Turks-Cypriotes from «Greek-Cyprian jarma», and also working out of plans of defence on a case of attempt Makariosa violently to achieve change of a state of affairs on Cyprus and to realise "enozis". Targets of insurgents TMT, as well as in 50th, were also those from Turks-Cypriotes who supported intercommunal reconciliation and the compromise. Activity of the Cyprian parliament also met serious difficulties. Necessity of the double qualified majority for decision-making on variety of questions in practice gave to the turko-Cyprian community the veto concerning legislative initiatives of Greeks-Cypriotes, in particular, that concerned tax system. On the one hand, the opposition of the turko-Cyprian community has been connected with objections as a matter of fact problems: Greeks - Cypriotes achieved some redistribution to own advantage financial streams, giving reason it is necessity of their reduction in bolshee conformity with proportional structure of the population. On the other hand, however, the situation with the statement of taxes was used by Turks-Cypriotes as the "asymmetric" answer to Greeks-Cypriotes on other questions at issue (separate municipalities, structure of authorities etc.) . 136 By December, 1961 has failed all attempts to settle tax questions kompromissno. After that legislative chambers of each of communities have accepted separately reguljativnye certificates on the given theme. The constitutional court recognised their legitimacy. At the same time from the political point of view it has given one more impulse to tendencies of mutual separation of communities. Insuperable difficulties have arisen with realisation of articles of the constitution about creation of separate municipalities in five largest cities of island. The given position has been urged to exclude, on the one hand, absorption turko - the Cyprian element the Greek-Cyprian majority, and, with another, - by means of association of representatives of communities in joint «coordination bodies» to provide a priority of the uniform beginning in the decision of practical problems of a city life. In the opinion of Greeks-Cypriotes, including most Makariosa, the similar prospect, however, began to look as creation of the turko-Cyprian enclaves and de - fakto island split. The Turko-Cyprian nationalists from its part demanded an unequivocal administrative and territorial autonomy of the community. They were afraid, that otherwise the Greek-Cyprian superiority in strength, together with their economic prevalence (the economic superiority of Greeks - of Cypriotes was conclusive: in 1960 They, making about 77 % of the population of island, provided 87,4 % of agricultural and 93,8 % of industrial production, 99,5 % of export and 96,1 % of import of Cyprus), will outgrow in total domination. Negotiations on the given occasion proceeded долго.137 By December, 1962 the compromise with creation of the joint municipal commissions to which Greeks - and Turks-Cypriotes would be presented according to the share in the population of this or that city was outlined. The given offer had character of a trial measure, obkatku to which was offered to spend to 1963 Nevertheless, at the last minute the compromise has been rejected F.Kjuchukom (on December, 22nd, 1962); its counter idea to found separate city councils has not found understanding at Greeks-Cypriotes. On December, 29th, 1962 the parliament of the turko-Cyprian community has unilaterally confirmed creation of the turko-Cyprian municipalities. On January, 2nd, 1963 the Greek-Cyprian majority in the government has ordered to include these municipalities in joint Councils about development. Turks-Cypriotes have addressed with the protest in the Supreme Constitutional court which has recognised (on April, 25th, 1963) unconstitutional both actions. The situation was at a deadlock. Besides internal political problems, divergences concerned foreign policy of Cyprus. So, participation Makariosa in Movement of Non-alignment as one of its founders and active members has caused F.Kjuchuka's aversion (December, 1961) which has addressed in the Constitutional court for an explanation of possibilities of the veto of the turko-Cyprian vice-president concerning a country foreign policy. In the conditions of mutual Greek-Turkish intercommunal mistrust on Cyprus nerabotosposobnost the mechanism of the state bodies provided by the tsjurihsko-London agreements, thus, it was available. On such background president Makarios from the end of 1962 began to talk about necessity of disposal of the tsjurihsko-London mode and about achievement of "original self-determination». Thus the analysis made заявлений138 shows, that not declaration "enozisa", and, more likely, strengthening of the presidential power on independent Cyprus - without restrictions of agreements 1959, at the subsequent decision of a question on association with Greece was its purpose. On November, 30th, 1963 Makarios has presented 13 amendments to the Cyprian constitution, aimed at increase of its efficiency and made solving impact on a course further событий.139 the Basic offers provided cancellation of the veto of the president and the vice-president, their election on the posts joint voting of parliament, cancellation of separate voting of deputies from communities on the questions provided by the constitution, creation of incorporated municipalities, and also fastening of representation of communities in public authorities to proportionally their dale in an aggregate number of the population of island. Strengthening of a role of the president of Republic Cyprus and the chairman of parliament at the expense of restriction of functions of the vice-president and vitse - the chairman simple replacement, accordingly, the president or the chairman of parliament in case of their time absence on the posts or inability to fulfil the duties Was supposed also. A number of amendments carried, more likely, technical характер.140При it Makarios at once has declared inadmissibility of imposing of the offers and has urged Turks-Cypriotes to begin negotiations. Estimations of contemporaries and historians in the relation of "13 amendments», are ambiguous. On the one hand, the unilateral orientation of initiative Makariosa against the rights of the turko-Cyprian community fixed by the tsjurihsko-London agreements for the purpose of data of its status to level of ethnic minority is marked. A number of researchers develop the thesis that steel amendments «the end beginning» uniform Cyprus and comprised a germ of tragical split of the island which have happened as a result in 1974 году.141 On the other hand, the part of historians is ready to recognise, that in 1960-63 - owing to the objective and subjective reasons - work of state bodies of Republic Cyprus really was at a deadlock, and institutsionalnoe reforming arose. Thus, intention Makariosa is treated as correct basically, however the criticism is caused by its aspiration to solve a problem at the expense of Turks-Cypriotes, not having provided them any indemnification. Besides, in the absence of intercommunal trust the initiative of similar scale was inadmissible without a laborious spadework with attraction, first of all, and Лондона.142 Besides it is easier than Turks-Cypriotes, and also Athenes, Ankara realised attempt to agree looked, that is called, routinely, with a minimum of changes in the constitution. Both Greece, and Turkey have been satisfied by signing of agreements 1959 and removal of a problem which could involve them in war with each other and seriously complicated relations with the Great Britain. Therefore both countries first tried to induce communities to observe reached договоренности.143 So, in particular, in August, 1962 during official visit to Turkey the Greek Minister for Foreign Affairs Ev. Averova the arrangement on rendering of joint pressure upon a management of communities for situation deducing on Cyprus from deadlock has been reached. The Prime minister of Greece K.Karamanlis repeatedly warned Makariosa about dangerous consequences provotsirovanija Turkey. In April, 1963 Ev. Averov unambiguously specified that Greece will not support Makariosa if that "goes on unilateral denouncement of agreements or their part." 144 in support of the status quo the prime minister of Turkey I.Inyonju during visit to Ankara Makariosa (November, 1962) expressed And also US president Dzh. Kennedy (visit of the Archbishop to the USA in June, 1962). The Great Britain also supported preservation of an existing state of affairs what English minindel A.duglas - Hjum has declared to the Greek colleague at a meeting in the NATO format in Ottawa on May, 31st, 1963 It is necessary to consider, however, what not all in Greece and Turkey supported a similar line. In November, 1963 during elections in Greece to the power the government led by G.Papandreu, the supporter of the decision of the Cyprian question by means of "enozisa".145 This change has come has tried to take advantage Makarios for unexpected entering of the project of amendments. Besides, the occasion to doubt hardness of the adherence to Arrangements of 1959 has given London: the British Supreme commissioner across Cyprus A.Klark has agreed with argument Makariosa about necessity of reforming of the constitution of island (conversation on October, 23rd, 1963) 146 and, under some data, has personally brought the remarks in presented to it the Archbishop the project «13 amendments». Thereupon some Greek researchers talk about intended provotsirovanii British Makariosa then to appear in a role of directors of destiny of Cyprus. Other treatment consists that A.Klark has expressed only the opinion, but not a sight of official London as it has apprehended Makarios. As a result «13 amendments» to the sharp form have been rejected by Ankara as "absolutely unacceptable" (the statement minindel Turkey F.Erkina on December, 6th, 1963 and the note of Turkish embassy in Nicosia on December, 16th, 1963). Only then with the similar answer the leader of the turko-Cyprian community F.Kjuchuk.147 of Athena from its part has acted showed discontent with independence Makariosa and called for dialogue concerning changes in the Cyprian constitution., However, it was clear, that conditions on Cyprus were heated, and small incident could provoke splash in intercommunal violence. The case has not kept itself waiting long. At night with 20 for December, 21st, 1963 refusal of group of Turks-Cypriotes in Nicosia to show for check documents to the Greek - Cyprian police patrol has poured out in firing in which result two Turks-Cypriotes have been killed also one Greek-Cyprian policeman it is wounded. The given incident has served as an occasion to spontaneous armed clashes in Nicosia and in other cities on all island; intercommunal hatred was splashed out in displays of cruelty and barbarity from both parties, including in relation to women and children. Turks-Cypriotes began to leave the houses in ethnically mixed villages and to go to enclaves of compact residing of a Turkish community. There are bases to assume, that force application has initially been approved by a management of communities; 148 then, however, and Makarios, and as F.Kjuchuk time and again acted with an appeal to restraint and the bloodshed termination. The most fierce collisions were developed in capital suburb Omorfita - the mixed quarter where lived the families of many Greek-Cyprian policemen which have become by targets of insurgents TMT. The appeared in time Greek-Cyprian semimilitary formations led by N.Sampsonom have beaten off this attack and have used violence over unarmed Turks-Cypriotes. By estimations, all for days of fights (on December, 21-26st, 1963) On Cyprus it has been killed and it is wounded about two hundred Greeks - and almost one thousand Turk-kipriotov.149 Military men of the Greek and Turkish contingents billeted on Cyprus under agreements 1959, also have joined operations on the different parties of barricades. The situation promptly became aggravated: the Turkish fleet has come nearer to coast of Cyprus, planes of the Air Forces of Turkey turned over island, the prospect of Turkish intervention for the sake of status quo restoration looked real. In these conditions the countries-guarantors have addressed to Greeks - and Turks of Cyprus with an appeal about the prompt termination ognja.150Greki-Cypriotes after consultations of Athenes, and then and Turks-Cypriotes have accepted the offer on use of armed forces of London for separation сторон.151 the Initiative of the Great Britain already have supported the USA which were afraid of retraction of the allies on NATO in war because of Cyprus. Simultaneously Washington has warned Ankara about undesirability voeshpyh акций.152 Then London has suggested to spend in the near future the international conference with participation of the states-guarantors and both Cyprian communities for complex consideration of a situation. On December, 26th, 1963 the peacemakers which majority was made by English military men, have created buffer zones («a green line») round enclaves of compact residing of a Turkish community, mainly - the turko-Cyprian quarters in island cities. On December, 27th, 1963 at the initiative of Cyprus for situation consideration on island UN Security Council session has been called. Having stated motives of constitutional amendments Makariosa, the representative of Nicosia has urged SB to take necessary measures for observance of the established mode of cease-fire and prevention of Turkish aggression against Cyprus. The representative of Turkey has declared absence at Ankara such plans and has accused Greeks-Cypriotes in razvjazyvanii wars against the turko-Cyprian community of island. As a whole, considering outlined conditions improvement on Cyprus, members SB the United Nations have not made of any concrete decision, having agreed to return to situation consideration again when it will be expedient. On January, 16th, 1964 under the offer of the Great Britain, Turkey and Greece to Cyprus for supervision over succession of events the representative of the secretary general of the United Nations has been directed. The sharp aggravation of a situation on Cyprus has appeared unexpected for Greece which has condemned Makariosa for carrying out of the policy not co-ordinated with Athenes and the Position of "the international factor» - England has confirmed a spirit on joint with Ankara the compromise permission кризиса.153, Greece and Turkey - has compelled Makariosa to agree with carrying out in London in January, 1964 of five-sided conference, in spite of the fact that as participants were declared (on equal) both Cyprian communities, instead of uniform Republic Cyprus. In estimations of contemporaries and historians concerning December crisis of 1963 there are different accents that is caused, apparently, political predilections of authors: the part believes, that the planned action of Greeks-Cypriotes for the purpose of intimidation of a Turkish community and realisation "enozisa" took place; others see in it attempt of revolt of Turks-Cypriotes. At the same time spontaneity of events and absence of coordination of actions of both parties from the uniform centre, especially in the first days, confirms opinion of the majority of researchers that, despite secret preparation of both communities for power opposition, intentions to apply force in December, 1963 were not at one of них.154 Events of December, 1963 had the most serious consequences for intercommunal communications on Cyprus, and their influence on relations of Greeks - and a Turk - of Cypriotes aloud till now. In the winter 1963/64 about 25 thousand Turks-Cypriotes have left the houses and have moved to enclaves of compact residing of a Turkish community in which, under protection of a Turkish military contingent and insurgents of the turko-Cyprian semimilitary formations, has concentrated as a result about half of all a Turk of Cyprus. To Greeks-Cypriotes access there has been closed, the Republic Cyprus legislation there too did not operate. In the largest enclave (northern part of Nicosia) Turks-Cypriotes have generated the authorities which undertook a community administrative office. They it was completed from among those a Turk of island who has left the posts on service and in Republic Cyprus establishments (deputies, state employees, military, police etc.) . On December, 29th these imperious bodies have been proclaimed by "Time turko-Cyprian administration». The territory of enclaves, by estimations of representatives of the United Nations, made in 1964 no more than 3 % of territory of Cyprus, and position of Turks-Cypriotes «it was similar to position besieged».155 Thus, Turks-Cypriotes have completely left 94 (on other data - 103) from 146 villages with ethnically L The mixed population. Slaughter in Omorfite and the collisions which have captured all island, have generated quite natural fears for own safety at Turks-Cypriotes. At the same time it is necessary to consider and that fact what to leave the houses of people, at times against their will, propagation and threats of insurgents TMT compelled. Island split on enclaves to an ethnic sign and promotion by Turks-Cypriotes of the requirement of the federal device of Cyprus at geographical separation of communities became a result. The policy of the Greek-Cyprian management promoted intensity escalation. Events of December, 1963 have led to that Turks-Cypriotes have left all official posts, and completeness of the government has de facto passed to Greeks-Cypriotes for whom the primary goal saw now in legal registration of the new status quo. Itself Makarios counted, that resistance of enclaves will last not longer 10 месяцев.156 Aspiring definitively to break Turks-Cypriotes, the management of the Greek community has entered economic blockade of enclaves, having forbidden delivery there any materials which could be used in the military purposes (building materials, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, chemical materials, spare parts to cars, rubber etc.) . And though blockade was carried out by places with breaks, and since 1968 was, in general, is removed, the rests of intercommunal trust were подорваны.157 In historical memory of Turks-Cypriotes aggression and violence from Greeks-Cypriotes have left a deep trace, having undermined belief in possibility peace intercommunal сосуществования.158 The Cyprian problem, thus, has passed in an open phase of the direct interethnic conflict. Responsibility for it, it appears, lays on both parties, though, perhaps, and not to the same extent. As a matter of fact, Turks-Cypriotes actually had the serious bases for anxiety for the safety and consequently aspired to strict realisation in practice of agreements 1959. At the same time Greeks-Cypriotes, supporting entering of basic amendments into arrangements of 1959, them accepted and approved, challenged - one against all - the difficult multilevel compromise, got the international support. Besides it, Greeks-Cypriotes economically, it is administrative and demograficheski were dominating force on Cyprus, and the vector of succession of events in a defining measure depended on them. Osoznanno or not, they, however, were not ready to recognise the status equal to which to those was given by the island constitution for Turks-Cypriotes, and thereupon have psychologically been focused on struggle against «exclusive minority». Thus, certainly, it is necessary to notice, that in the environment and Greeks, and Turks-Cypriotes the extremist elements defining to the politician of a management of both communities used huge influence. They also have brought to nothing that potential of peace intercommunal interaction which contained in the tsjurihsko-London arrangements, despite all their complexity and bulkiness. The prospect of escalation of the "Intracyprian" contradictions in Greek-Turkish power collision - taking into account membership of Turkey and Greece in NATO - involved attention to a situation on Cyprus from outside the USA and СССР.159 the Cyprian problematics, thus, started to form round itself some kind of "clot" of the international relations in which steady interrelations of foreign policy actors began to develop gradually. And if before finding of independence by Cyprus a vector of development of a situation on Cyprus and round it set London, Athenes and Ankara, 160 that after 1960 events on Cyprus began to predetermine appreciably a climate of relations, first of all, Greece and Turkey. It is necessary to note, however, that in Athenes and Ankara, and Washington - London, many refused to recognise this change, and still ran business providing a certain arrangement between the "basic" players of the Cyprian situation and then to present it in the form of the ready recipe to the Cyprian communities, first of all - to Greeks-Cypriotes. In 1964 - 67 the following paragraph is devoted the analysis of the international formats of search of the Cyprian settlement.
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A source: Bredikhin, Oleg Nikolaevich. Cyprus conflict: the genesis and the main stages of development / thesis / Moscow. 2006

More on topic §1. Crisis of intercommunal interaction (1963) and its consequences:

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  2. §1. A short retrospective show of intercommunal interaction on Cyprus: from sources till 1945
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  4. §3. Intercommunal negotiations 1968-74 and Turkish intrusion
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