§3. Intercommunal negotiations 1968-74 and Turkish intrusion

the Period 1968 - on Cyprus was characterised 74, as a whole, by two major factors: on the one hand, has been started and proceeded, despite difficulties, the Greek-Cyprian intercommunal dialogue under the aegis of the United Nations; with another - contradictions between Makariosom and Athenes more and more accrued, threatening to accept the most extreme forms.
On such background the Cyprian situation still remained in the centre of the international attention, including in Washington and in Moscow. Contacts of the Secretary general of the United Nations At Tana with representatives of both Cyprian communities, to Greece and Turkey (January, 1968) have led to that all parties, despite primary doubts of Ankara, have agreed with expediency of the beginning of intercommunal negotiations within the limits of the United Nations. Their purpose proclaimed settlement of the constitutional aspect of the Cyprian problem, that is a parity of the rights and powers of communities according to the island constitution. Then, in case of success, for settlement of the international aspects to dialogue other interested participants should be connected. The Greek-Cyprian delegation at the negotiations which have begun in June, 1968, was headed by G.Kliridis; turko-Cyprian - R.Denktash.199 Discussion mentioned powers of communities in sphere of the executive, legislative and judicial power, and also in the field of local government. The dialogue proceeding in four stages, has been interrupted in September, 1971 in view of impossibility of the compromise, but has renewed in June, 1972 as a result of intermediary efforts of the United Nations. Negotiations, as a whole, were characterised gradual, though also uneasy, rapprochement of positions of the parties on variety of questions and simultaneously by allocation of a circle by where compromise possibilities seemed rather limited. This circle was not so is great, but also possibilities of communities for flexibility became минимальными.200 The parties, in particular, have agreed with preservation of posts of the president and the vice-president selected as it was provided by the constitution of 1960, separate voting of Greeks - and Turks-Cypriotes, however has been thus decided to cancel the veto which use in 1960-63 time and again nonplused process of acceptance of the state decisions. Besides, the representation of Turks-Cypriotes in the cabinet was reduced from one third of all places to one heel. Defined развязки201 were outlined and with a parity of representatives of communities in the state structures, and also in connection with structure and a principle of acquisition of judicial bodies. As to parliament decisions the principle of the simple majority was assumed, except for a number of special cases when bill acceptance needed obligatory voting pro at least to third of turko-Cyprian deputies. The qualified majority in two third of members of parliament of each of communities demanded only approval of the selective law and modification of the constitution. The compromise and with number of the Greek - and turko-Cyprian deputies gradually began to appear: 60 and 15, sootvetstveshju. Not resolved while, the truth, there was a question on service records: Turks-Cypriotes insisted on their drawing up by an ethnic principle; Greeks-Cypriotes supported uniform lists.
The most serious disagreements remained concerning local government. So, Turks-Cypriotes supported creation of separate administrative bodies to the ethnic sign which powers would be fixed by the constitution and extended on geographical areas with the prevailing population of this or that community. These areas united, on a plan of Turks-Cypriotes, in the uniform coordination structure, independently regulating has put each of communities. Police forces would be completed by an ethnic principle and submitted to heads of local administrations. As a matter of fact, it was a question of establishment of a mode of cantons and prospect of evolution of the state on Cyprus to the federal device. Greeks-Cypriotes saw in the turko-Cyprian requirements threat to the uniform state and attempt of formation on the basis of isolated units of local government of separate system led by the co-ordinating body which was capable to become subsequently a prototype of the turko-Cyprian state formation on Cyprus and to lead to island split. Thereupon they opposed the local government organisations in a kind some large separate geographical areas, agreeing at the same time to give to a Turkish community a full autonomy in religion and culture questions. In respect of structure co-ordinating local government a maximum, on what Greeks-Cypriotes were ready to go, is a creation in parliament of separate bodies from representatives of Greeks - and the Turks-Cypriotes which powers concerning regulation of ability to live of communities would be strictly limited by the law that the alternative vertical of the power parallel to uniform state structures (first of all was not created, executive). The detailed regulation of questions of local government in the constitution also caused aversion of Greeks-Cypriotes as inflexibility of the organic law of Cyprus did actually impossible any amendments further. Besides, Greeks of Cyprus offered introduction of posts of special observers which, besides the constitutional court, could estimate decisions made by local authorities about their conformity to the Cyprian laws and to the constitution. Despite failure of negotiations which have been definitively interrupted by events of summer of 1974, the operating time of certain outcomes concerning updating of mechanisms of functioning of the executive, legislative and judicial power on Cyprus, the 1960 put in pawn by the constitution became their major result, but appeared неэффективными.202 positive change of a climate of intercommunal interaction - for the first time for long years became Other result of intercommunal dialogue. The freedom of movement on Cyprus was gradually restored: under instructions Makariosa blockade of the turko-Cyprian enclaves has been removed definitively; in turn representatives of the Greek community got access to areas of compact residing of the Turks-Cypriotes which part began to come back in left in 1963 - 67 of the house. There were first certificates of renewal of economic interaction of communities. At the same time enclaves while remained, and before original normalisation of conditions on island was far. The persistence of both parties on upholding of the requirements has been connected with aspiration to provide «a titmouse in hands» in the form of the existing status quo: Greeks-Cypriotes have been still assured, that time works on them and on concessions Turks-Cypriotes should go the first. The last felt the superiority taking into account a projection of Turkish military power to Cyprus and the prevention declared by Ankara of possibility of the power action for protection a Turk of Cyprus. The international environment round Cyprus which, arguing theoretically, could have favorable influence on a course of intercommunal negotiations, remains rather difficult. Greece after junta coming to power «black colonels» in 1967 has firmly headed for such settlement which would answer, first of all, to allied obligations of Athenes to the USA and NATO. Besides, shown with all definiteness in November, 1967 readiness of Turkey for the power action on Cyprus in case of infringement of interests of Turks-Cypriotes forced the Greek management to put pressure on Makariosa, unscrewing it all is stronger than a hand. Turkey in 1968 - recognised that 74 its trunk-call position across Cyprus was more preferable, than a position of Athenes. Thereupon Ankara, counting on concessions from Greeks-Cypriotes and Greece, supported requirements of Turks-Cypriotes about creation of powerful independent structures of self-management and urged R.Denkgasha to show твердость.203 After a military coup d'etat (1971) Turkey began to tend gradually to idea of creation on the federative state island which subjects would be united by the weak central power. As a matter of fact, it became the further updating of the requirement about separate geographical units of self-management invested by large powers. Besides, Ankara continued to consider as quite probable scenario unilateral (or joint with Athenes) intrusions to Cyprus, in case of an aggravation there conditions and occurrence of threat for a Turk-kipriotov.204 Washington, it is necessary to notice, has initially loyally concerned a military coup d'etat in Афинах:205 in NATO of the USA have actively opposed attempts to suspend membership of Greece in the Alliance «before democracy restoration», and the embargo entered by Washington in April, 1967 on delivery of heavy arms of Greece, has been cancelled in the autumn 1968 года.206 In 1967 - 74 of Washington of communication and the Greek junta have considerably got stronger: the arrangement on granting to the Sixth fleet of the USA of port services in Greece has been reached; Athenes have visited vice-president of the United States S.Agnju, state secretary U.Rodzhers, the Minister of Defence M.Lejrd and other high-ranking officials declaring existence of "extraordinary close" relations between two countries. Remaining danger of power collision of Greece and Turkey because of Cyprus against steadfast attention of the USSR to the Mediterranean and the Near East more and more focused the USA on search of the prompt settlement of the Cyprian question, and it is the most preferable - as than "family business» within the limits of NATO. Strengthening to the beginning of 70th of positions of the USSR in the Near East (Egypt, Syria, Libya) and escalating in the Mediterranean the Soviet naval presence especially raised strategic value of Cyprus and the British bases already used in interests as the USA, and the North Atlantic alliance in whole (the formal consent of the Cyprian government has been summoned in 1970). Thereupon politician Makariosa who was guided to Moscow as a counterbalance to pressure from NATO - as Alliance as a whole, and its separate members, began to cause in the West special irritation. However, and the Archbishop has received in some circles of the USA still in the mid-sixties a nickname «the Mediterranean Castro». As acknowledgement told many have apprehended official visit Makariosa to the USSR on June, 2-9nd, 1971 in which course Moscow has declared again support of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Cyprus, and also its independent foreign policy. Thereupon coming to power on Cyprus more moderate politician would be perceived as answering to the NATO purposes. Considering Makariosa almost "red", in the West thereby did an error typical for the time, it is incorrect assotsiiruja with communists practically all nationalists (as a matter of fact), accepting foreign policy orientation to the USSR for the sake of reception of every possible support of Moscow and socialist лагеря.207 Pressure of the West on Makariosa, mainly through Athenes, has got multifactorial character. On the one hand, Greece began to urge to make concessions persistently the Cyprian president to Turks-Cypriotes and to achieve the prompt settlement of intercommunal aspect of a problem. It would allow to pass to the permission of the questions connected with the international status of Cyprus, here again Greece, the USA and Turkey expected to find the compromise within the limits of NATO. Business reached attempts of direct intervention in intercommunal dialogue. So, in June, 1971 of Athena addressed to Makariosu with the detailed recommendation about what of offers of Turks-Cypriotes in local government sphere twice /AT It would be necessary to accept. Refusal Makariosa has caused again the appeal of Athenes to «the doctrine of the national centre» with threats to take measures «in interests ellinizma». The climate of relations between Athenes and Nicosia continued to worsen; adjust it visit Makariosa to Greece in September, 1971 could not also On the other hand, at support from Athenes and secret participation of the Greek officers from structure of National guards, and also placed on Cyprus under contingent Agreements 1959, fighting organisation "Popular front" (1969) was created. Its formal purpose to facilitate mobilisation of members, realisation "enozisa" was called. In practice the organisation became the tool of direct pressure on Makariosa. On March, 4th, 1970 it had been made attempt at a life of the Archbishop. In September, 1970 to Cyprus again there has arrived G.Grivas who created and has headed organisation EOKA-2, which original problem, against proclaimed "enozisa" (the appeal to continuation heroic in the opinion of Greeks-Cypriotes of campaign EOKA 1955-59) Struggle against supporters Макариоса.208 About 1972 of action ЭОКА-2 which were supported of Greek officers which was on Cyprus also was, have got regular character: murders, diversions, abductions of the weapon from police stations. The summer of 1973 in hostages had been grasped the Minister of Justice of Cyprus; on October, 7th, 1973 new attempt at life Makariosa is made. Against a situation aggravation on Cyprus Ankara has suggested Greece to undertake in case of violence escalation joint actions for intervention realisation. Simultaneously both Athenes, and Ankara let know, that in case of a failure of intercommunal dialogue settlement will be returned in the NATO format. The arrangement minindel Greece and Turkey (the NATO meeting in Lisbon in June, 1971) about more active participation of two countries in the course of settlement thereupon became indicative. At discussion of possibilities of renewal of intercommunal dialogue (autumn of 1971) Athenes in coordination with Ankara, but without opinion of Nicosia, have suggested to continue negotiations in the expanded format - with connection of Greece and Turkey. Makarios has opposed. As a result of difficult coordination SB the United Nations has approved the compromise initiative providing participation in intercommunal dialogue of the Greek and Turkish representatives, but as technical советников.209 Contradictions of Athenes and Nicosia have reached crisis level in January - February, 1972 when the Greek management has demanded to transfer to National guards party got by Cyprus in Czechoslovakia the arms intending for the Greek-Cyprian police divisions, in the majority betrayed Makariosu. Refusal of the Archbishop has caused indignation in Greece which, as a matter of fact, has shown the ultimatum (11.02.1072) : Besides transfer of arms and a recognition of leadership of Athenes at acceptance of the main decisions, Athena insisted on change of structure of the government of Cyprus. Thus in the reference text almost barefaced threat of an armed intervention contained. Turkey has taken advantage of a case and has warned about possibility to undertake the preventive action for protection of Turks-Cypriotes if on Cyprus collisions between conflicting Greek groupings begin. On February, 15-16th, 1972 the Cyprian police has found out preparation certificates the Greek officers of National guards of the armed performance against Makariosa. On an appeal of the Archbishop of thousand Greeks-Cypriotes left on streets, protesting against revolution plans. Simultaneously Makarios has addressed to ambassadors of the USA and the USSR with the request вмешаться.210 Moscow and Washington, operating through the ambassadors in Athenes, promoted conditions stabilisation: the USA have urged a management of Greece not to insist on immediate satisfaction of conditions of the ultimatum; the USSR has in turn called for respect of independence of Cyprus (TASS, 15.02.1972 - "Truth" of 17.02.1972). As a result the situation has been settled as follows: with assistance of the Secretary general of the United Nations the Czechoslovak weapon has been placed in United Nations warehouse under protection of unaided Greek-Cyprian policemen. Simultaneously Makarios, aspiring to normalise relations with Athenes, has spent shifts in the government. The new action of pressure upon the Archbishop became requirement Makariosu inspired by the Athenian junta which have been put forward by session called on March, 2nd, 1972 of the Sacred Synod of the Cyprian church as a part of three metropolitans, to leave a post of the president whereas the orthodox church tradition does not provide combination of posts spiritual and secular власти.211 the Archbishop Athenian Ieronim, known for the communications with junta, has urged Makariosa to accept the Synod requirement. On March, 8th, 1972 the Synod (with infringement of procedures) declared deprivation Makariosa of the Archiepiscopal dignity; this decision which has caused a storm of indignation among the Cyprian laymen and clergy, "has come into force" on April, 13th, 1973; mestobljustitelem the metropolitan of Pathos Gennady was appointed. In the answer in July, 1973 at the initiative of Makariosa the Big Synod with participation practically all heads and representatives of the orthodox churches, protected Makariosa and disfrocked rebellious metropolitans for raskolnichestvo has been called. It was the large victory Makariosa, continuing, despite difficulty of a situation, skilfully to manoeuvre on a slippery Cyprian political scene and to keep support of the overwhelming majority of Greeks-Cypriotes. In 1968 and 1973 it was triumphally re-elected in second and third time successively on a post of the president. Its authority won during anticolonial struggle of Cyprus, only became stronger in 60 and 70th against accruing pressure from the outside - mainly, from Athenes and Washington. Not belonging to one of island political parties, it enjoyed their general support. So, communistic AKEL, 1970 9 places which have received on parliamentary elections from 35,212 saw in Makariose a resistance symbol to the western imperialism and NATO. Positions similar, as a whole, V.Lissaridisa's popular in the environment of the left intelligency socialist party EDEK (adhered to 2 places on elections of 1970). Right Uniform party (G.Kliridis, 15 parliamentary mandates on elections 1972 ) and the Progressive coalition (8 mandates) traditionally supported Makariosa in its status "etnarha" - the historical religious and political leader of Greeks-Cypriotes. Supporters, however, these parties have appeared more others are subject to influence of the propagation extended from Athenes compromising Архиепископа.213 In the meantime communications of the Archbishop with the military government of Greece continued to worsen. In the summer of 1973 the junta has declared intention shortly again to begin bilateral negotiations with Turkey across Cyprus. In November 1973 After suppression of student's democratic revolt at the Athenian Polytechnical university to the power in Greece even more conservative grouping of military men led by D.Ioannidisom has come. With this moment of Athena have begun barefaced, as a matter of fact, financial and ideological support of opponents Makariosa on Cyprus, 214 directly condemning a policy of the Cyprian president as contradicting «to interests ellinizma». The heavy economic situation of Greece and absence of any support in a society pushed junta on the foreign policy provocation capable, according to military men, to bring fast dividends. The easy purpose realisation "enozisa" seemed; thus response of Turkey as counted in Athenes, should warn the USA for the sake of preservation of unity of southeast wing НАТО.215 On July, 15th, 1974 in reply to reference Makariosa to Athenes (2.07.1974) with an appeal to deduce from Cyprus the most part of the Greek officers, divisions of National guards and the Greek contingent placed on Cyprus under Agreements 1959, have occupied a presidential palace and all strategic objects in Nicosia and large cities of island. Their actions have been supported pravoekstremistskimi by elements of the Greek-Cyprian community. Resistance of the Cyprian policemen and small presidential guards has been quickly suppressed; Archbishop Makariosu, however, by miracle managed to be rescued and leave island. New "president" of Cyprus had been declared known 1963 on events in Omorfite N.Sampson; the government included the Greek-Cyprian nationalists. On July, 16th, 1974 Turkey has addressed to the Great Britain with the offer to undertake joint efforts, according to the Contract on guarantees, and to restore the status quo. On July, 17th for negotiations to London there has arrived Turkish prime minister B.Edzhevit. Englishmen fluctuated, not wishing to appear involved in crisis with difficultly predicted consequences, and Ankara, having decided to operate independently, on July, 20th, 1974 has landed a landing on Cyprus (the plan «Attila I»). The head of the Athenian junta D.Ioannidis has given the order to the Greek armies to attack Turkish forces, however in view of obvious unavailability of Greece to war the order has been excellent. The USSR has sharply condemned revolution on Cyprus, having warned Greece what exactly it bears all responsibility for последствия.216 the USA were almost the unique country which has not condemned immediately revolution, and the American ambassador on Cyprus R.Devis, unique of heads of diplomatic representatives, even has met "Minister for Foreign Affairs" мятежников.217 There is a number of the facts confirming, that the USA knew about preparation of revolution against Makariosa and counted, that Cyprus, having lost independence, it will be full-scale and effective to be used in interests НАТО.218 Resoluteness of actions of Turkey, however, it has appeared for the USA unexpected. Despite intermediary of the assistant to US State Secretary Dzh. Sisko and appeals of Washington to stop operations on Cyprus, Ankara has not stopped, yet did not realise the plans: by July, 23rd, 1974 Turkish parts, not meeting serious resistance, have occupied strategically important points in the island northeast, having occupied about ten percent of territory of Cyprus. The agreement on cease-fire on July, 22nd has formally come into force. On July, 20th, 1974 SB the United Nations has accepted the resolution 353 in which has demanded respect of the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Cyprus, the termination by the contradictory parties of fire, a conclusion of all foreign armies from island, and also carrying out of negotiations of the countries-guarantors under Agreements 1959 for restoration of the constitutional government on Cyprus and the world in регионе.219 the Governments of Greece, Turkey and the Great Britain have agreed to direct to Geneva Ministers for Foreign Affairs for discussion of the developed situation. Meanwhile, the military mode in Athenes on July, 23rd, 1974 has fallen, the power has appeared in hands of the civil government led by K.Karamanlisom. Simultaneously «in resignation» N.Sampsona's "government" has left; on Cyprus legality and order restoration has begun. The first round of negotiations in Geneva (on July, 25-30th, 1974) has come to the end with acceptance of the declaration with acknowledgement of the agreement on cease-fire and de - fakto a recognition of positions occupied with the contradictory parties, and also the arrangement on carrying out of the second round - with participation of representatives of the Cyprian communities and the states-guarantors for discussion of total settlement of the Cyprian problem. Besides, in the declaration it was said about a conclusion of foreign armies from Cyprus that the resolution 353 SB provided also the United Nations. As a matter of fact, it was defeat of Athenes as speech de facto went about presence on Cyprus of "two independent administrations».220 The second round has taken place on August, 8-14th, 1974. Turkey and Turks-Cypriotes in the categorical form have demanded establishment on Cyprus of a mode of cantons at the weak central government or two-zone federation; in both cases they have declared, that expect to receive the control over 34 % of territory острова.221Принятие this condition would assume resettlement of several tens thousand Greeks - and Turks-Cypriotes. Attempt of Englishmen to offer creation on Cyprus two independent administrations has been rejected by representatives of both communities. The Greek - Cyprian offers on returning to the tsjurihsko-London status quo at formation in a Turkish community of structure of wide local government have been rejected by Turks-Cypriotes and Ankara which Greeks-Cypriotes ascertained impossibility of return to the constitution of 1960 In such conditions for decision-making and Athenes have requested two days on meditation. At this critical moment in Ankara understood, that the Greek armies on Cyprus are incapable of resistance, and the USSR is hardly adjusted to interfere actively with the conflict, valuing a discharge with Washington and benefits from developing Soviet-Turkish cooperation. In Turkey, that the USA also hoped, being afraid of NATO blasting, will not go further censure of Ankara if it quickly operates. As a result of August, 14-16th, 1974 Turkey has performed the second part of operation on Cyprus («Attila II»), having expanded a zone of occupation to almost 37 % of territory of island. To measures of Cyprus, its consequence were catastrophic: about 2 thousand Greeks-Cypriotes it has been killed, more than 1,5 thousand was missing, almost 200 thousand (third of general population) became refugees, moving on the south in hope to be rescued from Turkish approach. Thus the houses in the south of Cyprus have left, being afraid of revenge, thousand Turk-kipriotov.222 The Turkish estimation of operative conditions and the forecast of the international reaction have appeared true. K.Karamanlisa's order the Greek Naval Forces and the Air Forces to attack a Turkish landing has been excellent in view of unavailability of Greece to war; 223 on Cyprus the Greek forces were disabled. Presence of peacemakers of the United Nations also could not become the deterrent for Турции.224 The USA have gone further intrusion censure, having refused to involve for the sake of restraint of Turkey as someone from Greeks desperately hoped, the Sixth fleet. Moreover, some authors specify, that the USA, probably, counted, that Turkish operation will promote restoration of balance of forces on Cyprus and long-term stabilisation of the general обстановки.225 The USSR has formally condemned intervention, but speech about possible Soviet intervention did not go. Moscow preferred to express cautiously occurrence "the centre of military intensity around East Mediterranean", making responsible on НАТО.226 situation Development suited the USSR: Turkey and Greece were on a war threshold, last soon left military structure of NATO, having weakened southeast flank of the Alliance. The Antiamericanism has reached the limit in Greece. Entered by the Congress in the beginning of 1975 of embargo on deliveries of the American weapon to Ankara has complicated American - Turkish communications. On such background Soviet-Turkish relations received additional стимул.227 Aspiring to fix the role in the Cyprian affairs, the USSR has offered (the end of August, 1974) Convocation of the international conference with participation of Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, members SB the United Nations and Non-alignment Movements. This (propaganda by and large) the idea which was holding good of many years, has met with approval of Athenes and Nicosia, but has been rejected by Turkey and the USA. In the further USSR continued to support unity and independence of Cyprus, but thus, choosing - after the United Nations - streamline formulations about necessity of a conclusion of all foreign armies from Cyprus, aspired not to touch Turkey. SB the United Nations on August, 16th, 1974 has approved the resolution 360 in which has condemned unilateral military actions against Republic Cyprus, has called for a conclusion from island of all foreign armies and to carrying out of negotiations. Prevent Turkish operation of the United Nations, however, could not. In development of resolution SB the United Nations 361 from 30.08.1974 228 and by results of consultations of the Secretary general of the United Nations K.Valdhajma in Athenes, Nicosia and Ankara, on September, 6th, 1974 have been begun intercommunal negotiations on humanitarian aspects. By the end of 1974 dialogue began to mention contours of possible settlement. Bringing short results of the analysis presented in the paragraph, it is necessary to ascertain, that events of 1974 have considerably changed the status quo on Cyprus. The full geographical separation of the Greek and Turkish communities definitively finished in 1975 has been for the first time in history spent: naseleggae in the south and the island north became monoethnic, except for a small Greek - Cyprian community on peninsula Karpasija which then almost with its full complement also has been compelled to move for the south. The idea "enozisa" is definitively cunning from the political agenda of Cyprus; pravonatsionalisticheskie an element of the Greek - Cyprian community have received a severe lesson and have been gradually incorporated in structure of "normal" political parties. Presence on Cyprus a Turkish military group has displaced balance of forces between Greeks - and Turks-Cypriotes both on the island, and in respect of a parity of their positions behind a negotiating table. In turn it mattered for change-over of approaches to the Cyprian situation from Greece and Turkey. Athenes, in dictatorship compromised on Cyprus, began to abstain after 1974 from intervention in intercommunal affairs, being guided any more the doctrine of "the national centre», and the formula «Cyprus solves, Greece supports». Also together with Nicosia was the course on question internationalisation in the United Nations is taken. Ankara, operating taking into account new realities, began to insist together with Turks-Cypriotes on creation on island of friable federation of two subjects equal in rights - the Cyprian communities. Besides ease of a victory of 1974 Generated in Turkey the nationalist euphoria developing into promotion by Turkey of claims to Athenes at bilateral level (a continental shelf in Aegean sea, border of territorial waters and air space etc.). Events of summer of 1974 have put also a painful trauma to intercommunal relations in which after heavy crises 1963, 1964 and 1967 only - improvement against intercommunal dialogue of 1968-74 only began to be outlined. Cruelty and scale of Turkish intrusion have left a deep hem in historical memory of Greeks and Greeks-Cypriotes; it is important to mean at the same time, that the negative most part was taken thus up by Ankara, but not Turks of Cyprus. Thus Turks-Cypriotes in turn began victims to sweep in the first days of Turkish operation: here the responsibility part lays on semimilitary formations of extremists from among island Greeks, and a part - on the Greek officers from continent, supporters of dictatorship in Athenes which the adventure on Cyprus has given to Ankara an occasion to the power action. The purposes of the present work do not include the analysis of politiko-legal dispute on that, is how much legitimate, according to positions of the Contract of 1959 about guarantees, there was an armed operation of Turkey on Кипре.1 Clearly, however, that after 1974 the Cyprian conflict as the complex of intercommunal and interstate contradictions has appeared is complicated by one more major component: the foreign military occupation of 37 % of territory of the sovereign state which have provoked variety of humanitarian problems. For Athenes and Nicosia now konfliktogennaja the essence of the Cyprian question began to consist in the fact of Turkish occupation. Thus from the point of view of the international estimations the position of Ankara in the given question became rather vulnerable, that have shown resolutions of HECTARES of the United Nations (3212 from 1.11.1974) and SB the United Nations 365 (13.12.1974) . 229 As a result round a theme of the foreign armed presence on Cyprus new vectors of interaction of the international participants of the Cyprian situation began to be formed: the USSR, the USA, NATO, the United Nations, etc. Thus, however, signs of changes of priorities of the specified actors on the Cyprian direction was not planned. Undertaken in the second chapter of the present research the short analysis shows, as a whole, that in 1960-74 about the Cyprian conflict there was a definitive formation of steady self-reproduced integrity of international-political interaction - subsystems of the international relations - to the elements, structure and logic of functioning. Its steady actors of a steel the Greek and Turkish communities on Cyprus, Greece and Turkey, and also vneregionalnye powers (the Great Britain, the USA, the USSR) and the organisations (NATO and the United Nations). It is possible to present structure of this subsystem in the form of the three-layer sphere which inside layer is made by intercommunal Cyprian contradictions, average reflects opposition of Greece and Turkey on a complex of questions, including on the Cyprian settlement, and external, widest level, is display of influence to the Cyprian problematics vneregionalnyh the forces involved in it directly or indirectly: London, Washington, Moscow, and also NATO and the United Nations. The stability inherent in vectors of interests of actors in a subsystem, has led to an operating time them of steady models of behaviour otherwise an aggravation of the Cyprian situation. On such conclusion the analysis of a position of the USSR and the USA during the periods of sharp crises on Cyprus (1964, 1967, 1972, 1974), in particular, pushes. Simultaneously similar constancy has fulfilled steady algorithm of reproduction of the subsystem of the Cyprian conflict, that, on the one hand, stabilised a situation, preventing catastrophic scenarios of its development, but, with another, considerably complicated efforts on settlement searches. The following chapter is devoted the analysis of the intermediary initiatives undertaken in 1974 which have followed events thirty years, and also revealing of the mechanism of functioning of a subsystem of the Cyprian conflict and a role of its basic regulators.
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A source: Bredikhin, Oleg Nikolaevich. Cyprus conflict: the genesis and the main stages of development / thesis / Moscow. 2006

More on topic §3. Intercommunal negotiations 1968-74 and Turkish intrusion:

  1. an interference as the formation factor dvujazychija in a situation of German-Turkish and Russian-Turkish language interactions
  2. §1. Crisis of intercommunal interaction (1963) and its consequences
  3. the Appendix 2 Business game «Corporate negotiations on phone»
  4. §1. A short retrospective show of intercommunal interaction on Cyprus: from sources till 1945
  5. §2. Strengthening of intercommunal pressure on island after the Second World War (1945-1958)
  6. §1. International jurisdiction of Turkish vessels
  7. § 2. The international convention on unification of some rules on the bill of lading of 1924. Rules Visbi 1968 and 1979
  8. 2.2. Features of powers of the investigatory judge connected with application of a preventive punishment alternative to holding in custody and with possibility of intrusion into sphere of proving on criminal cases
  9. § 2. Teoretiko-legal aspects of the coordination of the determinate obligations defined in the course of negotiations on joining to the Marrakeshsky agreement on establishment of the World Trade Organization
  10. §1. Formation of the international private law of Turkish Republic
  11. the Chapter IV. The international civil procedure in the legislation of Turkish Republic
  12. «an estimation of your behaviour at business negotiations» (Borozdina G.V.Psihologija of business dialogue: the textbook / Borozdina G. V - 2 e izd. - Mokva: INFRA - M. 2004. - 148 with.)
  13. features German-Turkish etnolekta and specificity of the use «Kanak shprak»